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AD: The abbreviation for aggregate demand, which is the total (or aggregate) real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers would willing and able to make at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand (AD) is one half of the aggregate market analysis; the other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand, relates the economy's price level, measured by the GDP price deflator, and aggregate expenditures on domestic production, measured by real gross domestic product. The aggregate expenditures are consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports made by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign).

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COMPETITION: In general, the actions of two or more rivals in pursuit of the same objective. In the context of markets, the specific objective is either selling goods to buyers or alternatively buying goods from sellers. Competition tends to come in two varieties -- competition among the few, which is market with a small number of sellers (or buyers), such that each seller (or buyer) has some degree of market control, and competition among the many, which is a market with so many buyers and sellers that none is able to influence the market price or quantity exchanged.

     See also | market | fourth rule of competition | efficiency | market control | market structure | perfect competition | monopoly | monopolistic competition | oligopoly | unfair competition | market share | antitrust laws |


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MARGINAL UTILITY OF INCOME

The change in utility resulting from a given change in income. This is a specialized case of the general notion of marginal utility, which is simply the change in utility resulting from a given change in the consumption of a good. Marginal utility of income is key to identifying alternative risk preferences, including risk aversion, risk neutrality, and risk loving. These three risk preferences are indicated by three marginal utility of income possibilities, decreasing (risk aversion), increasing (risk loving), and constant (risk neutrality).

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BLACK DISMALAPOD
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time waiting for visits from door-to-door solicitors trying to buy either a birthday greeting card for your grandfather or a weathervane with a cow on top. Be on the lookout for the happiest person in the room.
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The word "fiscal" is derived from a Latin word meaning "moneybag."
"The way employees treat customers reflects the manner in which they're treated by management. "

-- James Perkins, president, Cornell University

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Latin American Free Trade Area
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