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February 2, 2023 

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

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TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS: An improvement in the ability to use the factors in the production of goods and services. That is, technological progress is an advance in the technical efficiency with which resources are combined in production. In contrast to factor accumulation, technological progress is an increase not in the quantity of the factor of production, but in the ability to transform the existing ones into output. That is, the ability to produce more output with given inputs or fewer inputs for a given output.

     See also | factors of production | resources | input | labor | capital | land | entrepreneurship | goods | services | welfare | economic growth | factor accumulation |


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VOLUNTARY EXCHANGE

The process of willingly trading one valuable commodity (good, service, or resource) for another. The key term is "willingly," which distinguishes voluntary exchanges from involuntary exchanges, such as those created by government taxes. Voluntary exchanges are the foundation of market transactions.

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BEIGE MUNDORTLE
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club hoping to buy either 500 feet of telephone cable or a package of 4 by 6 index cards, the ones with lines. Be on the lookout for strangers with large satchels of used undergarments.
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A U.S. dime has 118 groves around its edge, one fewer than a U.S. quarter.
"We tend to forget that happiness doesn't come as a result of getting something we don't have, but rather of recognizing and appreciating what we do have."

-- Fredrick Koeing

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