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RISK: The possibility of gain or loss. Risk the calculated probability of different events happening, is usually contrasted with uncertainty the possibility that any number of things could happen. For example, uncertainty is the possibility that you could win or lose $100 on the flip of a coin. You don't know which will happen, it could go either way. Risk, in contrast, is the 50 percent chance of winning $100 and the 50 percent chance of losing $100 on the flip of the coin. You know (or think you know) that your probability of winning or losing is 50 percent because the coin has a 50 percent chance of coming up either heads or tails.

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TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS: An improvement in the ability to use the factors in the production of goods and services. That is, technological progress is an advance in the technical efficiency with which resources are combined in production. In contrast to factor accumulation, technological progress is an increase not in the quantity of the factor of production, but in the ability to transform the existing ones into output. That is, the ability to produce more output with given inputs or fewer inputs for a given output.

     See also | factors of production | resources | input | labor | capital | land | entrepreneurship | goods | services | welfare | economic growth | factor accumulation |


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CONCENTRATION RATIOS

A family of measures of the proportion of total output in an industry that is produced by a given number of the largest firms in the industry. The two most common concentration ratios are for the four largest firms and the eight largest firms. The four-firm concentration ratio is the proportion of total output produced by the four largest firms in the industry and the eight-firm concentration ratio is proportion of total output produced by the eight largest firms in the industry. Concentration ratios are commonly used to indicate the degree to which an industry is oligopolistic and the extent of market control of the largest firms in the industry. A related measure is the Herfindahl index.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a flea market seeking to buy either a handcrafted spice rack or a cell phone case. Be on the lookout for neighborhood pets, especially belligerent parrots.
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In the late 1800s and early 1900s, almost 2 million children were employed as factory workers.
"The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet."

-- Aristotle, philosopher

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