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COMMODITY MONEY: A medium of exchange (money) with both value in use and value in exchange. Commodity money is first and foremost a commodity that provides users with satisfaction of their wants and needs. However, it also has the secondary function of a medium of exchange.

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INJECTIONS:

Non-consumption expenditures on aggregate production. The three aggregate expenditures grouped under the heading of injections are investment expenditures, government purchases and exports. Injections add to the core circular flow containing consumption, production, and income. The injections-leakages model is a Keynesian economics analysis that combines injections with leakages (saving, taxes, and imports) to identify the equilibrium level of aggregate production and income.
Injections are so named because they are aggregate expenditures "injected" into the core cumulatively reinforcing circular flow of consumption, production, factor payments, and income that goes between the household sector and business sector. An increase any of these injection expenditures expands the total of this core circular flow and a decrease reduces the total.

The Injections-Leakages Model

As a group, the three injection expenditures are most important in the context of the injections-leakages model.

The injections-leakages model provides an alternative to the more common Keynesian cross, aggregate expenditures-aggregate production model of the macroeconomy. Both models provide essentially the same analysis and are essentially "two sides of the same coin." The key difference between the two models is that consumption is explicitly eliminated from the injections-leakages variation. Whereas the Keynesian cross builds on the consumption function, the injections-leakages model builds on the saving function.

Equilibrium in the injections-leakages model relies on a balance between the injections into the core circular flow and leakages out of the flow. If leakages match injections, then the volume of the core circular flow does not change. This is the same as achieving a balance between the water flowing from a faucet into a sink and that flowing out through the drain. When these two flows are equal, then the total amount of water IN the sink does not change. Equilibrium!

The Three Injections

One half of the injections-leakages model is injections, which are non-consumption expenditures on aggregate production. The three injections are investment expenditures, government purchases, and exports. These are termed injections because they are "injected" into the core circular flow of consumption, production, and income.
  • Investment Expenditures: The business sector inject investment expenditures into the circular flow. Investment expenditures are used to purchase capital goods like factories and equipment, and while they can be somewhat volatile, they are usually in the range of 10 to 15 percent of aggregate expenditures.

  • Government Purchases: The government sector, like the household and business sectors, injects expenditures into the circular flow. The purchases by the government sector on final goods and services produced by the economy is aptly termed government purchases. Government purchases also fall in the range of 10 to 15 percent of total expenditures.

  • Exports: The foreign sector, which includes everyone who is not a citizen of the domestic economy, also purchases domestic production. Exports are expenditures injected into the circular flow by the foreign sector and are up to 10 percent of total expenditures.

The Circular Flow

The Circular Flow
The Circular Flow
Injections are best illustrated using the standard circular flow model of the macroeconomy, such as that presented in the exhibit to the right. The circular flow is a handy model of macroeconomic activity that highlights the interaction between households and businesses through the product and resource markets.

The business sector is at the right and the household sector is at the left. The product markets are at the top and the resource markets are at the bottom. The household sector buys production from the business sector through the product markets. Expenditures by the household sector are consumption expenditures. Revenue going to the business sector is gross domestic product.

The business sector hires factor services from the household sector through the resource markets. Payments made by the business sector are factor payments. Income going to the household sector is national income.

These four parts -- consumption expenditures, gross domestic product, factor payments, and national income -- are the core of the circular flow. They are the "engine" that drives the macroeconomy.

Let's now consider how injections relate to this core circular flow.

The three injections -- investment, government purchases, and exports -- can be displayed by clicking the [Injections] button. These injection expenditures, like consumption, are used to purchase aggregate production through the product markets. Most importantly, injections add to the total volume of the basic circular flow. That is, they "inject" revenue into the product markets that is used for factor payments and becomes household income.

Three Sets of Injections

Injections by the four sectors are often combined in a sequential fashion to generate three different combinations, which are then used in three different injections-leakages models.
  • Two-Sector: The simplest injections-leakages model includes the household and business sectors. Also termed the saving-investment model, the injections side of this variation includes only investment expenditures, with saving the only leakage.

  • Three-Sector: The second variation of the injections-leakages model adds the government (or public) sector to the household and business sectors contained in the two-sector model. The injections side of this variation, which is used to analyze government stabilization policies, contains investment expenditures and government purchases, with saving and taxes on the leakages side.

  • Four-Sector Model: As the name suggests, all four macroeconomic sectors--household, business, government, and foreign--are included in the four-sector model. This model, which is used to capture the interaction between the domestic economy and the foreign sector, contains investment expenditures, government purchases, and exports as injections, with saving, taxes, and imports on the leakages side.

Three Leakages

The other half of the injections-leakages model is leakages, which are non-consumption uses of the income generated from production. The three leakages are saving, taxes, and imports. These are termed leakages because they are "leaked" out of the core circular flow of consumption, production, and income.

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Recommended Citation:

INJECTIONS, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2017. [Accessed: August 21, 2017].


Check Out These Related Terms...

     | injections-leakages model | leakages | injections line | leakages line | saving-investment model | two-sector injections-leakages model | three-sector injections-leakages model | four-sector injections-leakages model | Keynesian model |


Or For A Little Background...

     | aggregate expenditures | investment expenditures | government purchases | exports | Keynesian economics | Keynesian cross | saving line | investment line | effective demand | induced expenditures | autonomous expenditures | macroeconomics | macroeconomic sectors | saving | taxes | imports |


And For Further Study...

     | expansionary fiscal policy | contractionary fiscal policy | automatic stabilizers | Keynesian cross and aggregate market | expenditures multiplier | accelerator principle | paradox of thrift | aggregate market analysis | business cycles |


Related Websites (Will Open in New Window)...

     | The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money |


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