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April 17, 2024 

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EQUILIBRIUM QUANTITY: The quantity exchanged between buyers and sellers when a market is in equilibrium. The equilibrium quantity is simultaneously equal to both the quantity demanded and quantity supplied, which means that there is no shortage nor surplus in the market. This is, in fact, the prime criterion for market equilibrium. If buyers are able to buy all of the good they're willing and able to buy (no shortage) and sellers are able to sell all of the good they're willing and able to sell (no surplus), then neither side of the market is inclined to change the existing terms of trade. And that's equilibrium.

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KALDOR-HICKS EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if the monetary value of society's resources are maximized. This is achieved if the marginal willingness to pay by those who benefit from an action is equal to the marginal willingness to accept of those harmed. If this condition is not achieved, then a Kaldor-Hicks improvement is possible. Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, named after Nicholas Kaldor and John Hicks, is the theoretical basis of benefit-cost analysis, a technique commonly used to evaluate the desirability of producing public goods (such as parks, highways, or reservoirs). This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Pareto efficiency.

     See also | efficiency | willingness to pay | willingness to accept | benefit-cost analysis | Kaldor-Hicks improvement | Pareto efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure |


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PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM DIFFERENCES

A principle stating that monopolistically competitive firms seek to maintain similarities between products at the same time they promote differences. Similarities enable substitutability, such that one firm can attract the buyers away from other firms. Differences enable uniqueness and market control, such that each firm has market control and is able to charge a higher price than achieved with perfect competition. This principle is also termed Hotelling's paradox.

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