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December 9, 2022 

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IDENTIFICATION LAG: In the context of economic policies, the time between a shock to the economy and realization that the shock has occurred. This is one of several policy lags that limit the effectiveness of stabilization policies designed to correct business-cycle fluctuations. This is also one of two inside lags. The other is an implementation lag. Also termed recognition lag, the identification lag emerges due to the time needed to measure economic activity. While the lag is generally positive, it actually can be negative through accurate forecasting techniques. When negative policies can be undertaken to correct a problem before it occurs.

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KALDOR-HICKS EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if the monetary value of society's resources are maximized. This is achieved if the marginal willingness to pay by those who benefit from an action is equal to the marginal willingness to accept of those harmed. If this condition is not achieved, then a Kaldor-Hicks improvement is possible. Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, named after Nicholas Kaldor and John Hicks, is the theoretical basis of benefit-cost analysis, a technique commonly used to evaluate the desirability of producing public goods (such as parks, highways, or reservoirs). This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Pareto efficiency.

     See also | efficiency | willingness to pay | willingness to accept | benefit-cost analysis | Kaldor-Hicks improvement | Pareto efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure |


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KALDOR-HICKS EFFICIENCY, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: December 9, 2022].


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OLIGOPSONY

A market characterized by a small number of large buyers controlling the buying-side of a market. Oligopsony is the buying-side equivalent of a selling-side oligopoly. Much as a oligopoly is a market dominated by a few large sellers, oligopsony is a market dominated by a few large buyers. While oligopsony could be analyzed for any type of market it tends to be most relevant for factor markets in which a handful of firms control the buying of a factor. Two related buying side market structures are monopsony and monopsonistic competition.

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