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June 30, 2022 

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SAVING FUNCTION: The positive relation between household saving and household disposable income. The saving function is commonly presented as the saving line or propensity-to-saving line. The slope of this line is the marginal propensity to save, which is the proportion of any additional income used for saving. The saving function and the marginal propensity to saving play key roles in the multiplier and accelerator concepts. Because consumption is the difference between disposable income and saving, the consumption function is a complementary relation to the saving function.

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KALDOR-HICKS EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if the monetary value of society's resources are maximized. This is achieved if the marginal willingness to pay by those who benefit from an action is equal to the marginal willingness to accept of those harmed. If this condition is not achieved, then a Kaldor-Hicks improvement is possible. Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, named after Nicholas Kaldor and John Hicks, is the theoretical basis of benefit-cost analysis, a technique commonly used to evaluate the desirability of producing public goods (such as parks, highways, or reservoirs). This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Pareto efficiency.

     See also | efficiency | willingness to pay | willingness to accept | benefit-cost analysis | Kaldor-Hicks improvement | Pareto efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure |


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KALDOR-HICKS EFFICIENCY, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: June 30, 2022].


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OLIGOPOLY

A market structure characterized by a small number of large firms that dominate the market, selling either identical or differentiated products, with significant barriers to entry into the industry. This is one of four basic market structures. The other three are perfect competition, monopoly, and monopolistic competition. Oligopoly dominates the modern economic landscape, accounting for about half of all output produced in the economy. Oligopolistic industries are as diverse as they are widespread, ranging from breakfast cereal to cars, from computers to aircraft, from television broadcasting to pharmaceuticals, from petroleum to detergent.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club seeking to buy either a flower arrangement with a lot of roses for your grandmother or a wall poster commemorating the first day of winter. Be on the lookout for cardboard boxes.
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Much of the $15 million used by the United States to finance the Louisiana Purchase from France was borrowed from European banks.
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