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TOTAL FACTOR COST: The opportunity cost incurred when using a given factor of production to produce a good or service. Total factor cost should be compared with the related term, total cost. Total factor cost is the cost of using a specific factor, total cost is the cost of all factors of production. Total factor cost is predominately used in the analysis of the factor market.

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KALDOR-HICKS IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if the willingness to pay of those benefiting exceed the willingness to accept of those harmed. In other words, if those gains exceed those losses, or the benefits exceed the costs, then social welfare is improved and undertaking the action provides a net benefit to society. In other words, the winners can, in principle, compensate the losers for their loss, and still come out ahead. The actual compensation, however, is required. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Pareto improvement.

     See also | Kaldor-Hicks efficiency | efficiency | willingness to pay | willingness to accept | benefit-cost analysis | Pareto improvement | Pareto efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure |


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SLOPE, CONSUMPTION LINE

The positive slope of the consumption line is also termed the marginal propensity to consume (MPC). This slope is greater than zero but less than one, reflecting induced consumption and the Keynesian psychological law of consumer behavior that consumption increases by less than the increase in income. The slope of the consumption line provides the foundation for the slope of the aggregate expenditures line and thus also affects the magnitude of the multiplier process.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers seeking to buy either a package of blank rewritable CDs or yellow cotton balls. Be on the lookout for malfunctioning pocket calculators.
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In 1914, Ford paid workers who were age 22 or older $5 per day -- double the average wage offered by other car factories.
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