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LOCATION THEORY: A theoretical framework for studying the location decisions made of firms and households based on transportation cost and spatial differences in the accessibility of inputs and markets for outputs. Location theory, developed with noted contributions from August Losch, Alfred Weber, Johann von Thunen, Walter Christaller, and Walter Isard, explicitly considers the cost of transportation in the production and consumption choices made by firms and households. Location theory has been used to explain urban density, labor migration, and land use.

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PARETO EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if one person can not be made better off without making someone else worse off. Named after Vilfredo Pareto, this criterion is the guiding theoretical notion of efficiency used in the study of economics, especially welfare economics. Pareto efficiency is generally not attained if some resources are idle or unemployed. By engaging idle resources in production, some people can have more production without reducing that available to others. A problem with Pareto efficiency, however, is that it is based on the existing distribution of income and wealth. This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Kaldor-Hicks efficiency.

     See also | efficiency | Pareto improvement | Kaldor-Hicks efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure | unemployment | resources | income distribution | wealth distribution | distribution standards |


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AUTONOMOUS EXPENDITURES

Expenditures on aggregate production by the four macroeconomic sectors that do not depend on income or production (especially national income or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in these expenditures. Each of the four aggregate expenditures--consumption, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports--have an autonomous component. Autonomous expenditures are affected by the ceteris paribus aggregate expenditures determinants and are measured by the intercept term of the aggregate expenditures line. The alternative to autonomous expenditures are induced expenditures, expenditures which do depend on income.

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In the late 1800s and early 1900s, almost 2 million children were employed as factory workers.
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