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December 7, 2021 

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LONG-RUN ADJUSTMENT, PERFECT COMPETITION: The combined adjustment of a perfectly competitive industry and of each firm in the industry to an equilibrium condition that eliminates all economic profits and losses, while each firm selects a factor size that maximizes profit. This adjustment process involves two parts. One is the adjustment of each perfectly competitive firm to the appropriate factory size that maximizes long-run profit. The other is the entry of firms into the industry or exit of firms out of the industry, to eliminated economic profits or economic losses. The end result of this long-run adjustment is a multi-faceted equilibrium condition: P = AR = MR = MC = LRMC = ATC = LRAC

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PARETO IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Pareto efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if it is possible for one person to benefit without anyone else being harmed. A Pareto improvement is possible if the economy has idle resources or market failures. With idle resources, more production is possible to help some without hurting others. With market failures, corrective actions can eliminate deadweight loss that can then be use for benefits economy-wide. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Kaldor-Hicks improvement.

     See also | Pareto efficiency | efficiency | Kaldor-Hicks improvement | Kaldor-Hicks efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure | unemployment | resources |


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FACTORY

The physical capital (building and equipment) at a particular location used for the production of goods and services. A factory, or plant, is usually a relatively large production operation (compared with something smaller, like a shop). While factory and firm are occasionally used synonymously they are not really the same. A given firm might own more than factory and a given factory might be owned by more than one firm.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store hoping to buy either throw pillows for your bed or a package of blank rewritable CDs. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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In his older years, Andrew Carnegie seldom carried money because he was offended by its sight and touch.
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