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December 3, 2021 

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BUSINESS CYCLE MEASUREMENT: Three of the most noted and often used measures of business cycle activity are real gross domestic product (especially the growth rate), unemployment rate, and inflation rate. Another group of measures fall under the broad heading of economic indicators and include leading economic indicators, coincident economic indicators, and lagging economic indicators. Real sophisticated economic types also follow measures such as changes in business inventories, Producer Price Index, M2 money supply, durable goods order, and others.

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ADJUSTMENT, SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET: Disequilibrium in the short-run aggregate market induces changes in the price level that restore equilibrium. If the price level is above the short-run equilibrium price level, economy-wide product market surpluses cause the price level to fall. If the price level is below the short-run equilibrium price level, economy-wide product market shortages cause the price level to rise. In both cases short-run equilibrium is restored. You might want to compare adjustment, long-run aggregate market. Price level changes induce changes in both aggregate expenditures and real production. Unlike the long-run aggregate market, changes in the price level can induce changes in short-run aggregate supply, making it greater or less than full-employment real production.

     See also | aggregate market | aggregate market analysis | short-run aggregate market | equilibrium | disequilibrium | price level | real production | product market | resource market | surplus | shortage | adjustment, long-run aggregate market | change in aggregate expenditures | change in real production | full employment |


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ADJUSTMENT, SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2021. [Accessed: December 3, 2021].


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REAL-BALANCE EFFECT

A change in aggregate expenditures on real production made by the household, business, government, and foreign sectors that results because a change in the price level alters the purchasing power of money. This is one of three effects underlying the negative slope of the aggregate demand curve associated with a movement along the aggregate demand curve and a change in aggregate expenditures. The other two are interest-rate effect and net-export effect. The real-balance effect is somewhat analogous to the income effect underlying the negative slope of the market demand curve.

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