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RATIONING: The distribution or allocation of a limited commodity, usually accomplished based on a standard or criterion. The two primary methods of rationing are markets and governments. Rationing is needed due to the scarcity problem. Because wants and needs are unlimited, but resources are limited, available commodities must be rationed out to competing uses.

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ADJUSTMENT, LONG-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET: Disequilibrium in the long-run aggregate market induces changes in the price level that restore equilibrium. If the price level is above the long-run equilibrium price level, economy-wide product market surpluses cause the price level to fall. If the price level is below the long-run equilibrium price level, economy-wide product market shortages cause the price level to rise. In both cases long-run equilibrium is restored. Price level changes induce changes in aggregate expenditures but NOT changes in real production. The reason is that long-run aggregate supply is full-employment real production, which is unaffected by the price level.

     See also | aggregate market | aggregate market analysis | long-run aggregate market | equilibrium | disequilibrium | price level | real production | product market | surplus | shortage | adjustment, short-run aggregate market | change in aggregate expenditures | change in real production | full employment |


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OLIGOPSONY

A market characterized by a small number of large buyers controlling the buying-side of a market. Oligopsony is the buying-side equivalent of a selling-side oligopoly. Much as a oligopoly is a market dominated by a few large sellers, oligopsony is a market dominated by a few large buyers. While oligopsony could be analyzed for any type of market it tends to be most relevant for factor markets in which a handful of firms control the buying of a factor. Two related buying side market structures are monopsony and monopsonistic competition.

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