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AFC: The abbreviation for average fixed cost, which is fixed cost per unit of output, found by dividing total fixed cost by the quantity of output. Average fixed cost is one of three related cost averages. The other two are average variable cost and avarage total cost. Average fixed cost decreases with larger quantities of output. Because fixed cost is FIXED and does not change with the quantity of output, a given cost is spread more thinly per unit as quantity increases. A thousand dollars of fixed cost averages out to $10 per unit if only 100 units are produced. But if 10,000 units are produced, then the average shrinks to a mere 10 cents per unit.

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BARRIER TO ENTRY: An institutional, government, technological, or economic restriction on the entry of firms into a market or industry. The four primary barriers to entry are: resource ownership, patents and copyrights, government restrictions, and start-up costs. Barriers to entry are a key reason for market control and the inefficiency that this generates. In particular, monopoly, oligopoly, monopsony, and oligopsony often owe their market control to assorted barriers to entry. By way of contrast, perfect competition, monopolistic competition, and monopsonistic competition have few if any barriers to entry and thus little or no market control.

     See also | institution | government | technology | firm | market | market control | inefficiency | monopoly | monopsony | oligopsony | perfect competition | monopolistic competition | monopsonistic competition |


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ALLOCATION

The process of distributing resources for the production of goods and services, and of distributing goods and services for the satisfaction of wants and needs and human consumption. This allocation process is an essential part of an economy's effort to address the problem of scarcity.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time browsing through a long list of dot com websites seeking to buy either a really, really exciting, action-filled video game or a coffee cup commemorating the moon landing. Be on the lookout for slow moving vehicles with darkened windows.
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The portion of aggregate output U.S. citizens pay in taxes (30%) is less than the other six leading industrialized nations -- Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, or Japan.
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