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April 13, 2021 

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KALDOR-HICKS IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if the willingness to pay of those benefiting exceed the willingness to accept of those harmed. In other words, if those gains exceed those losses, or the benefits exceed the costs, then social welfare is improved and undertaking the action provides a net benefit to society. In other words, the winners can, in principle, compensate the losers for their loss, and still come out ahead. The actual compensation, however, is required. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Pareto improvement.

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AFL-CIO: The umbrella organization for many labor unions in the United States, with AFL standing for American Federation of Labor, and CIO the abbreviation of Congress of Industrial Organizations. The AFL-CIO began as just the AFL in 1886 as a collection of craft unions representing skilled workers. It expanded to include semiskilled and unskilled workers represented by industrial unions. Differing interests among the two groups lead to a division of the original AFL in 1938 into two separate groups -- the AFL containing craft unions and CIO containing industrial unions. This rift was closed in 1955, when the AFL and CIO merged to form the AFL-CIO.

     See also | labor union | open shop | union shop | right to work | supply to a firm | factor market | monopoly |


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PROTECTIONISM

The view that the domestic sector of an economy, its consumers, and its producers should be protected from imports by imposing barriers to foreign trade. This is based on the notion that imports are detrimental to the economy and to its citizens. Protectionism is intended to secure domestic jobs, increase domestic wages, promote domestic production, and create a balance of trade surplus. It usually takes the form of tariffs, import quotas, and assorted non-tariff regulatory barriers.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time waiting for visits from door-to-door solicitors looking to buy either a country wreathe or galvanized steel storage shelves. Be on the lookout for malfunctioning pocket calculators.
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On a typical day, the United States Mint produces over $1 million worth of dimes.
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