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September 20, 2018 

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

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UNION SHOP: An employment arrangement, usually written into a collective bargaining agreement, in which a firm is free to hire both union and nonunion employees, with the stipulation that workers must join the union once hired. Union shops became a popular method of gaining control over the labor services when closed shops were outlawed by the Taft-Hartley Act passed in 1947. Those states with right-to-work laws effectively outlaw union shops. The alternative to a union shop is an open shop.

     See also | labor union | closed shop | union shop | right to work | collective bargaining | supply to a firm | Taft-Hartley Act | factor market | monopoly | market control | yellow-dog contract |


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MICROECONOMICS

The branch of economics that studies the parts of the economy, especially such topics as markets, prices, industries, demand, and supply. It can be thought of as the study of the economic trees, as compared to macroeconomics, which is study of the entire economic forest.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time touring the new suburban shopping complex wanting to buy either a solid oak entertainment center or a remote controlled ceiling fan. Be on the lookout for bottles of barbeque sauce that act TOO innocent.
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Helping spur the U.S. industrial revolution, Thomas Edison patented nearly 1300 inventions, 300 of which came out of his Menlo Park "invention factory" during a four-year period.
"No amount of business school training or work experience can teach what is ultimately a matter of personal character. "

-- Truett Cathy, Chick-fil-A Inc. founder

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