March 17, 2018 

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FIRST ESTATE: In past centuries, this included the religious leaders and clergy. In modern times, I like to use it in reference to politicians and government leaders who can exert a great deal of control over resources through the coercive powers of government. One historical function of the first estate is to protect the less powerful consumers, taxpayers, and workers of the third estate from the market control typically held by the business leaders of the second estate. It is not uncommon, however, for an unhealthy degree of cooperation between the first and second estates, which often ends up with the enslavement of the third estate (figuratively and literally). At times help is forthcoming from the watchdog journalist of the fourth estate--unless they too have been overtaken by the ruling elite.

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CLOSED SHOP: An employment arrangement, usually written into a collective bargaining agreement, in which a firm is allowed to hire only labor union members. Because this gives a labor union complete control over the labor services supplied to a particular firm, it was one of the earliest methods used by labor unions to monopolized a labor market. However, closed shops were outlawed by the Taft-Hartley Act passed in 1947 and has been largely supplanted by union shops.

     See also | labor union | union shop | open shop | right to work | collective bargaining | supply to a firm | Taft-Hartley Act | factor market | monopoly | market control | yellow-dog contract |

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CLOSED SHOP, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama,, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: March 17, 2018].

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A shock to the long-run aggregate market caused by an increase in aggregate supply, resulting in and illustrated by a rightward shift of the long-run aggregate supply curve. An increase in aggregate supply in the long-run aggregate market results in a decrease in the price level and an increase in real production. The level of real production resulting from the shock is a greater level of full-employment real production.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time waiting for visits from door-to-door solicitors seeking to buy either arch supports for your shoes or an AC adapter that works with your MPG player. Be on the lookout for poorly written technical manuals.
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Cyrus McCormick not only invented the reaper for harvesting grain, he also invented the installment payment for selling his reaper.
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