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January 17, 2018 

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BALANCE OF PAYMENTS SURPLUS: An imbalance in a nation's balance of payments in which payments made by the country are less than payments received by the country. This is also termed a favorable balance of payments. It's considered favorable because more currency is flowing into the country than is flowing out. Such an unequal flow of currency will expand the supply of money in the nation and subsequently cause a decrease in the exchange rate relative to the currencies of other nations. This then has implications for inflation, unemployment, production, and other facets of the domestic economy. A balance of trade surplus is often the source of a balance of payments surplus, but other payments can turn a balance of trade surplus into a balance of payments deficit.

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CLOSED SHOP: An employment arrangement, usually written into a collective bargaining agreement, in which a firm is allowed to hire only labor union members. Because this gives a labor union complete control over the labor services supplied to a particular firm, it was one of the earliest methods used by labor unions to monopolized a labor market. However, closed shops were outlawed by the Taft-Hartley Act passed in 1947 and has been largely supplanted by union shops.

     See also | labor union | union shop | open shop | right to work | collective bargaining | supply to a firm | Taft-Hartley Act | factor market | monopoly | market control | yellow-dog contract |


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MARGINAL UTILITY

The additional utility obtained from the consumption or use of an additional unit of a good. It is specified as the change in total utility divided by the change in quantity. Marginal utility indicates what each additional unit of a good is worth to a consumer and provides a theoretical basis for understanding market demand and the law of demand. Marginal utility generally declines with increased consumption of a good, a reflection of the law of diminishing marginal utility.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store hoping to buy either an electric coffee pot with automatic shutoff or a brown leather attache case. Be on the lookout for neighborhood pets, especially belligerent parrots.
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Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland, was the pseudonym of Charles Dodgson, an accomplished mathematician and economist.
"Being defeated is only a temporary condition; giving up is what makes it permanent."

-- Marilyn vos Savant, Author

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