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September 18, 2018 

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BUSINESS CYCLE: The recurring expansions and contractions of the national economy (usually measured by real gross domestic product). A complete cycle typically lasts from three to five years, but could last ten years or more. It is divided into four phases -- expansion, peak, contraction, and trough. Unemployment inevitably rises during contractions and inflation tends to worsen during expansions. To avoid the inflation and unemployment problems of business cycles, the federal government frequently undertakes various fiscal and monetary policies.

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HERFINDAHL INDEX: A measure of concentration of the production in an industry that's calculated as the sum of the squares of market shares for each firm. This is an alternative method of summarizing the degree to which an industry is oligopolistic and the relative concentration of market power held by the largest firms in the industry. The Herfindahl index gives a better indication of the relative market control of the largest firms than can be found with the four-firm and eight-firm concentration ratios.

     See also | market share | oligopoly | concentration ratio | market control | antitrust laws |


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INJECTIONS LINE

A graphical representation of the relation between the level of aggregate production and one or more injections. The three injections (non-consumption expenditures on aggregate production) are investment expenditures, government purchases and exports. The injections line sequentially adds, or layers, each of these three expenditures depending on the number of sectors used in the analysis (two, three, or four). The slope of the injections line depends on which if any of the expenditures are induced by aggregate production. The injections line is combined with the leakages line (containing saving, taxes, and imports) in the Keynesian injections-leakages model.

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