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RESOURCE QUANTITY, AGGREGATE SUPPLY DETERMINANT: One of three categories of aggregate supply determinants assumed constant when the short-run and long-run aggregate supply curves are constructed, and which shifts both aggregate supply curves when it changes. An increase in a resource quantity causes an increase (rightward shift) of both aggregate supply curves. A decrease in a resource quantity causes a decrease (leftward shift) of both aggregate supply curves. The other two categories of aggregate supply determinants are resource quality and resource price. Specific determinants falling into this general category include population, labor force participation, capital stock, and exploration. Anything affecting the quantity of labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship is also included.

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

     See also | taxes | supply-side economics | Kemp-Roth Act | income tax | conservative |


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LONG-RUN AVERAGE COST

The per unit cost of producing a good or service in the long run when all inputs under the control of the firm are variable. In other words, long-run total cost divided by the quantity of output produced. Long-run average cost is guided by returns to scale.

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The 22.6% decline in stock prices on October 19, 1987 was larger than the infamous 12.8% decline on October 29, 1929.
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