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July 19, 2018 

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UNFAVORABLE BALANCE OF TRADE: An imbalance in a nation's balance of trade in which the payments for merchandise imports made by the country exceed payments for merchandise exports received by the country. This is also termed a balance of trade deficit. It's considered unfavorable because more goods are imported into the country than are exported out, meaning that domestic production is replaced with foriegn production, which then reduces domestic employment and income. A balance of trade deficit is often the source of a balance of payments deficit.

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OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET: An office within the Executive branch (specifically within the Office of the White House), that assists the President in various fiscal matters. Established in 1970, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is responsible for developing the President's annual budget request to Congress, managing the Executive Branch, and evaluating Federal government regulations. The OMB staff are appointed by the President, but unlike other appointments, they do not need Senate confirmation. The duty of preparing the fiscal budget, and what this means for fiscal policy, has made the director of the OMB one of the more influential economic positions in country, ranking just a notch below the Chairman of the Federal Reserve System's Board of Governors and the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisors. The Congressional counterpart of the OMB is the Congressional Budget Office (CBO).

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MARGINAL UTILITY OF INCOME

The change in utility resulting from a given change in income. This is a specialized case of the general notion of marginal utility, which is simply the change in utility resulting from a given change in the consumption of a good. Marginal utility of income is key to identifying alternative risk preferences, including risk aversion, risk neutrality, and risk loving. These three risk preferences are indicated by three marginal utility of income possibilities, decreasing (risk aversion), increasing (risk loving), and constant (risk neutrality).

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