March 23, 2018 

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APC: The abbreviation for average propensity to consume, which is the proportion of income, usually measured as disposable income or national income, used for household consumption expenditures. It is found by dividing consumption by income. The average propensity to consume, abbreviated APC, most often pops up in discussions of Keynesian economics. The average propensity to consume is the average amount of total household income that is devoted consumption expenditures.

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BACKWARD-BENDING LABOR SUPPLY CURVE: A labor supply curve that is positively-sloped for relatively small quantities of labor and negatively-sloped for relatively large quantities of labor. In other words, workers supply larger quantities of labor in response to a higher wage when the wage is relatively low. However, when the wage reaches a relatively high level, further increases in the wage entice workers to reduce the quantity supplied. The supply curve thus bends back on itself. The reason for the negatively-sloped, backward-bending segment rests with the tradeoff between labor and leisure. Workers decide to "spend" a portion of their higher wage "buying" more leisure time, and thus working less. The end result is that the higher wage decreases the quantity of labor supplied.

     See also | labor | supply curve | labor-leisure tradeoff | leisure | income effect | normal good |

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Quantities, usually represented as symbols, that can take on one of a set of values. A variable is "variable" because its value can "vary." A primary goal of economic analysis is to determine the specific value that a variable takes on under specific circumstances.

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