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BENEFIT-COST RATIO: The benefit of an activity per dollar of cost. Benefit-cost ratios (or alternatively cost-benefit ratios) are frequently estimated for many forms of government spending, as well as a growing number of business investments. This technique was originally developed to determine if public investment projects, like dams, public parks, highways, etc., were worth doing. The logic is simple -- If benefits are greater than costs, then the project is worthwhile, if they are less, then it isn't.

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INCOME EFFECT: One of two reasons for the law of demand and the negative slope of the market demand curve (the other is the substitution effect). The income effect results because a change in price gives buyers more real income, or the purchasing power of the income, even though money or nominal income remains the same. This causes changes in the quantity demanded of the good.

     See also | demand | demand curve | law of demand | slope | quantity demanded | substitution effect | demand price | price | purchasing power |


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MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO SAVE

The proportion of each additional dollar of household income that is used for saving. The marginal propensity to save (abbreviated MPS) is another term for the slope of the saving line and is calculated as the change in saving divided by the change in income. The MPS plays a central role in Keynesian economics. It quantifies the saving-income relation, which is the flip side of the consumption-income relation, and thus it reflects the fundamental psychological law. It is also a critical to the multiplier process. A related saving measure is the average propensity to save.

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