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February 1, 2023 

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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURE DETERMINANTS: An assortment of ceteris paribus factors that affect aggregate expenditures, but which are assumed constant when the aggregate expenditure line is constructed. Changes in any of the aggregate expenditures determinants cause the aggregate expenditure line to shift. While a wide variety of specific ceteris paribus factors can cause the aggregate expenditure line to shift, it's usually most convenient to group them into the four, broad expenditure categories -- consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports. The reason is that changes in these expenditures are the direct cause of shifts in the aggregate expenditure line. If any determinant affects aggregate expenditures it MUST affect one of these four expenditures.

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PURCHASING POWER: In general the quantities of goods and services that can be bought with a given amount of money. The notable feature of purchasing power is that it declines as prices rise. In particular, inflation is the number one nemesis of purchasing power. When inflation gives higher prices, purchasing power falls. Be careful, though, that you don't get too caught up in the purchasing power of just a single dollar. The real question is not how much stuff one dollar can buy, but how many dollars you have. In other words, while the price of a brand new car might have been $10 when you were a kid (in the good old days), the average annual income was also $20. That's the same purchasing power as a $10,000 car price and a $20,000 income.

     See also | real | nominal | money | price level | inflation | cost of living | living standard | store of value |


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INTERCEPT, CONSUMPTION LINE

The intercept of the consumption line indicates autonomous consumption, consumption that does not depend on the level of income or production. This can be thought of as the baseline level of consumption that would be undertaken if income falls to zero. Autonomous consumption is affected by the consumption expenditures determinants, which cause a change in the intercept and a shift of the consumption line. The value of the intercept of the saving line is the negative of the value of the intercept of the saving line.

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