March 23, 2018 

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SHORT RUN, MICROECONOMICS: In terms of the microeconomic analysis of production and supply, a period of time in which at least one input in the production process is variable and one is fixed. You should compare and contrast the short run with long-run production, very long run, and market period. In the microeconomic analysis, the short run is primarily used to analyze production decisions for a firm. In this context, the variable input is typically labor and the fixed input is capital. The short-run analysis of production reveals the law of diminishing marginal returns and provides an understanding of the upward-sloping supply curve and the law of supply.

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BALANCE OF PAYMENTS SURPLUS: An imbalance in a nation's balance of payments in which payments made by the country are less than payments received by the country. This is also termed a favorable balance of payments. It's considered favorable because more currency is flowing into the country than is flowing out. Such an unequal flow of currency will expand the supply of money in the nation and subsequently cause a decrease in the exchange rate relative to the currencies of other nations. This then has implications for inflation, unemployment, production, and other facets of the domestic economy. A balance of trade surplus is often the source of a balance of payments surplus, but other payments can turn a balance of trade surplus into a balance of payments deficit.

     See also | balance of payments | money supply | currency | foreign exchange market | exchange rate | balance of payments deficit | balance of trade surplus | international finance |

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The notion that taxes are imposed on society in a fair and equitable way. The two standards of fairness and equity used to evaluate taxes are the benefit principle -- those who benefit from government pay the taxes, and the ability-to-pay principle -- those with the most income pay the taxes. The ability-to-pay principle gives rise to two additional notions of fairness -- horizontal equity (those with equal incomes pay equal taxes) and vertical equity (those with different incomes pay different taxes).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a crowded estate auction hoping to buy either a coffee cup commemorating last Friday (you know why) or a wall poster commemorating the first day of spring. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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Parker Brothers, the folks who produce the Monopoly board game, prints more Monopoly money each year than real currency printed by the U.S. government.
"It is not the straining for great things that is most effective; it is the doing of the little things, the common duties, a little better and better."

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