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July 16, 2018 

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

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CURRENCY: Paper usually issued by the national government that are used as money. Metal coins are also frequently included under the generic heading of currency. Currency in the U.S. economy is issued by the Federal Reserve System (paper) and the U.S. Treasury (coins). This constitutes about 30 to 40 percent of the M1 money supply. Most modern currency is fiat money.

     See also | money | M1 | checkable deposits | money supply | Federal Reserve System | fiat money | Federal Reserve note | gold certificate | silver certificate |


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CURRENCY, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: July 16, 2018].


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EXCESS SUPPLY

A disequilibrium condition in a competitive market in which the quantity supplied is greater than the quantity demanded. Excess supply is another way to say surplus. It also goes by the common term of buyers' market. Excess supply is one of two disequilibrium states of the market. The other is excess demand (or shortage).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store trying to buy either a coffee cup commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki or a rechargeable battery for your cell phone. Be on the lookout for crowded shopping malls.
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A half gallon milk jug holds about $50 in pennies.
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