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KEYNESIAN EQUILIBRIUM: The state of the macroeconomy in which aggregate expenditures are equal to aggregate output. This is illustrated using the income-expenditure model, or Keynesian cross, as the intersection of the aggregate expenditures line and the 45-degree line. The aggregate expenditures line is the summation of consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports. The 45-degree line represents all combinations in which aggregate expenditures equal aggregate output. Keynesian equilibrium is also represented by the saving-investment, or injection-leakage, model as the intersection between the injection line (investment expenditures, government purchases, and exports) and the leakage line (saving, taxes, and imports).

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BALANCE OF TRADE: The difference between funds received by a country when exporting merchandise and the funds paid for importing merchandise. The balance of trade is a major part of the current accounts portion of the balance of payments. A balance of trade surplus results if exports exceed imports, commonly termed a favorable balance of trade, and a balance of trade deficit exists if imports exceed exports, analogously termed an unfavorable balance of trade. The "favorable" and "unfavorable" normative connotations attached to the balance of trade rests with the presumption that a nation is "better off" when it exports more than it imports, which is not necessarily true.

     See also | foreign trade | export | import | current account | balance of payments | balance of trade surplus | balance of trade deficit | favorable balance of trade | unfavorable balance of trade | normative economics |


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MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO IMPORT

The change in imports purchased from the foreign induced by a change in income or production (national income or gross domestic product). The marginal propensity to import (abbreviated MPM) is another term for the slope of the imports line and is calculated as the change in imports divided by the change in income or production. The MPM plays a role in Keynesian economics. It augments the slope of the aggregate expenditures line and is part to the multiplier process. A related marginal measure is the marginal propensity to consume.

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