March 21, 2018 

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FACTOR DEMAND AND MARGINAL REVENUE PRODUCT: For a firm that hires the services of a factor in a perfectly competitive factor market, the factor demand curve is that portion of the marginal revenue product curve that lies below the average revenue product curve. The relation between marginal revenue product and factor demand for a perfectly competitive firm is comparable to the relation between marginal cost and short-run supply. A perfectly competitive firm maximizes profit by hiring the quantity of a factor that equates factor price and marginal revenue product. As such, the firm moves along it's marginal revenue product curve in response to alternative factor prices.

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BID-RENT CURVE: A line or curve that shows the relation between the rent economic activities are willing to pay for land (bid-rent) and the distance of the land from the point of attraction (such as the cent of a city). The bid-rent curve has a negative slope because the activities balance the bid-rent with the cost of transportation to the point of attraction. Farther distances require greater transportation cost and thus reduce the amount of rent that can be paid. The bid-rent curve indicates why rents, and by inference land values, tend to be higher near central locations.

     See also | location theory | rent | von Thunen model | transportation | market area | attractive force | weight | urban economics |

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A tax in which the proportion of income paid in taxes is the same for all income levels. A proportional income tax exists if ever taxpayer pays exactly the same tax rate relative to income regardless of income level. A proportional tax is one of three alternations. The other two are progressive tax, in which the proportion of income paid in taxes is greater for higher income levels, and regressive tax, in which the proportion of income paid in taxes is smaller for higher income levels.

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