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December 11, 2018 

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RIVAL CONSUMPTION: Consumption of a good by one person imposes a cost on, or prevents consumption of the good by, another person. Some goods, like food, have extremely rival consumption. One person, and only one person, gets the benefit. Other goods, like national defense, have no consumption rivalry, everyone can benefit simultaneously without imposing a cost on others. This is one of the two key characteristics of a good (the other is excludability) that distinguishes between common-property goods, near-public goods, private goods, and public goods.

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BUSINESS INVENTORIES: Stocks of finished products, intermediate goods, raw materials, and other inputs that businesses have on hand. One big reason to keep inventories is to maintain a continuous stream of production by avoiding any supply shortages. Another big reason is to avoid the loss of sales because finished products are unavailable when a customer is ready, willing, and able to buy.

     See also | production | shortage | surplus | business cycle | recession | recovery | durable good |


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BUSINESS INVENTORIES, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: December 11, 2018].


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CLASSICAL ECONOMICS

A theory of economics, especially directed toward macroeconomics, based on the unrestricted workings of markets and the pursuit of individual self interests. Classical economics relies on three key assumptions--flexible prices, Say's law, and saving-investment equality--in the analysis of macroeconomics. The primary implications of this theory are that markets automatically achieve equilibrium and in so doing maintain full employment of resources without the need for government intervention. Classical economics emerged from the foundations laid by Adam Smith in his book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, published in 1776. Although it fell out of favor in the 1930s, many classical principles remain important to modern macroeconomic theories, especially aggregate market (AS-AD) analysis, rational expectations theory, and supply-side economics.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway looking to buy either a T-shirt commemorating the second moon landing or a coffee cup commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki. Be on the lookout for the happiest person in the room.
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The standard "debt" notation I.O.U. does not mean "I owe you," but actually stands for "I owe unto..."
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