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GOLD STANDARD: Use of gold as the standard for valuing a nation's currency. A gold standard can take at least three different forms, most of which have been part of the American economic landscape. (1) Gold is used as the money in circulation. (2) Gold is used to back up paper money in circulation. This involves the use of something like a gold certificate, such that the number of certificates in circulation is the same as the amount of gold stored someplace like Fort Knox. (3) Gold is used to fix the exchange price of paper currency in circulation. In this case, the currency could, in principle, be exchanged for some predetermined amount of gold. In other words, the price of gold is fixed in terms of dollars.

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DEMAND ELASTICITY AND TOTAL EXPENDITURE: The notion that price-induced changes in total expenditure for a good (price times quantity) depends on the relative price elasticity of demand. In particular, for relatively elastic demand (1 < E < ∞) changes in price cause total expenditure to change in the opposite direction. An increase in price causes total expenditure to fall and a decrease in price causes total expenditure to rise. For relatively inelastic demand (0 < E < 1) changes in price cause total expenditure to change in the same direction. An increase in price causes total expenditure to rise and a decrease in price causes total expenditure to fall. For unit elastic demand (E =1) price changes do not cause any change in total expenditure. Total expenditure is the same whether price increases or decreases.

     See also | elasticity | price elasticity of demand | price | quantity | relatively elastic | relatively inelastic | unit elastic |


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SLOPE, SAVING LINE

The positive slope of the saving line is also termed the marginal propensity to save (MPS). This slope is greater than zero but less than one, reflecting induced saving and the Keynesian psychological law of consumer behavior that saving increases by less than the increase in income. The slope of the saving line provides the foundation for the slope of the leakages line used in the injections-leakages model. It thus also affects the magnitude of the multiplier process.

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Post WWI induced hyperinflation in German in the early 1900s raised prices by 726 million times from 1918 to 1923.
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