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January 21, 2019 

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BACKWARD-BENDING LABOR SUPPLY CURVE: A labor supply curve that is positively-sloped for relatively small quantities of labor and negatively-sloped for relatively large quantities of labor. In other words, workers supply larger quantities of labor in response to a higher wage when the wage is relatively low. However, when the wage reaches a relatively high level, further increases in the wage entice workers to reduce the quantity supplied. The supply curve thus bends back on itself. The reason for the negatively-sloped, backward-bending segment rests with the tradeoff between labor and leisure. Workers decide to "spend" a portion of their higher wage "buying" more leisure time, and thus working less. The end result is that the higher wage decreases the quantity of labor supplied.

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DEMAND ELASTICITY AND TOTAL EXPENDITURE: The notion that price-induced changes in total expenditure for a good (price times quantity) depends on the relative price elasticity of demand. In particular, for relatively elastic demand (1 < E < ∞) changes in price cause total expenditure to change in the opposite direction. An increase in price causes total expenditure to fall and a decrease in price causes total expenditure to rise. For relatively inelastic demand (0 < E < 1) changes in price cause total expenditure to change in the same direction. An increase in price causes total expenditure to rise and a decrease in price causes total expenditure to fall. For unit elastic demand (E =1) price changes do not cause any change in total expenditure. Total expenditure is the same whether price increases or decreases.

     See also | elasticity | price elasticity of demand | price | quantity | relatively elastic | relatively inelastic | unit elastic |


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DEMAND ELASTICITY AND TOTAL EXPENDITURE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: January 21, 2019].


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BALANCE OF TRADE SURPLUS

The positive difference of the value of goods and services exported out of a country less the value of goods and services imported into the country. A balance of trade surplus is the official term for positive net exports that occurs when exports exceed imports. A balance of trade surplus is also termed a "favorable" balance of trade because it results in a net inflow of monetary payments into the domestic economic from the foreign sector, which tends to be beneficial to a country. The alternative is a balance of trade deficit in which imports exceed exports.

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