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HOTELLING'S PARADOX: A principle stating that monopolistically competitive firms seek to maintain similarities between products at the same time they maintain differences. Similarities enable substitutability. That is, one firm can attract the buyers away from other firms. Differences enable uniqueness and market control. That is, a firm has a small monopoly for its product that allows it to charge a higher price than achieved with perfect competition. This is also termed the principle of minimum differences.

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EFFECTIVE DEMAND: The notion that the actual demand for aggregate output in the macroeconomy is based on the actual income or other existing economic conditions and not on income and conditions existing in equilibrium. The idea of effective demand plays a key role in Keynesian economics and how the macroeconomy can have extended periods of unemployment. Effective demand is in direct contrast to the view underlying classical economics that demand is that existing in equilibrium.

     See also | Keynesian economics | macroeconomics | unemployment | Great Depression | classical economics | aggregate expenditures |


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LOGROLLING

The trading of votes to ensure a favorable outcome for two or more separate decisions. Logrolling occurs when each of two people agree to vote for the other's project to ensure that both are passed. A votes for B and B votes for A. Logrolling is commonly used when neither decision is able to obtain the necessary majority of the votes needed for passage on their own accord. Explicit logrolling is when each of two voters agree to cast separate votes for two separate programs. Implicit logrolling is when two separate programs or policies are combined into a single package, which is then subject to a single vote. Logrolling can generate either an efficient or an inefficient allocation of resources, meaning that efficiency is irrelevant to the logrolling process.

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