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January 19, 2020 

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ACTUAL INVESTMENT: Investment expenditures that the business sector actual undertakes during a given time period, including both planned investment and any unplanned inventory changes. This is a critical component of Keynesian economics and the analysis of macroeconomic equilibrium, which occurs when actual investment is equal to planned investment. The difference between planned and actual investment is unplanned investment, which is inventory changes caused by a difference between aggregate expenditures and aggregate output. Should actual and planned investment differ, then aggregate expenditures are not equal to aggregate output, and the macroeconomy is not in equilibrium.

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EFFECTIVE DEMAND: The notion that the actual demand for aggregate output in the macroeconomy is based on the actual income or other existing economic conditions and not on income and conditions existing in equilibrium. The idea of effective demand plays a key role in Keynesian economics and how the macroeconomy can have extended periods of unemployment. Effective demand is in direct contrast to the view underlying classical economics that demand is that existing in equilibrium.

     See also | Keynesian economics | macroeconomics | unemployment | Great Depression | classical economics | aggregate expenditures |


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IMPORT QUOTAS

Quantity restrictions imposed by the government of one nation on imports from other nations. The primary goal of import quotas is to reduce imports and increase domestic production. Because the quantity of imports is restricted, the price of imports increases, which thus encourages domestic consumers to buy more domestic production. Import quotas are one of three common foreign trade policies designed to discourage imports and/or encourage exports. The other two are tariffs and export subsidies.

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