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September 23, 2018 

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RISK POOLING: Combining the uncertainty of individuals into a calculable risk for large groups. For example, you may or may not contract the flu this year. However, if you're thrown in with 99,999 other people, then health-care types who spend their lives measuring the odds of an illness, can predict that 1 percent of the group, or 1,000 people, will get the flu. The uncertainty is that they probably don't know which 1,000 people, they only know the number afflicted. This little bit of information is what makes risk pooling possible. If the cost is $50 per illness, then an insurance company can insure your 100,000-member group against flu if they collect $50,000 ($50 x 1,000 sick people), or 50 cents per person. By agreeing to pay the cost of each sick person in exchange for the 50 cent payments, the insurance company has effectively pooled the risk of the group.

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FACTOR DEMAND: The willingness and ability of productive activities (that is, businesses) to hire or employ factors of production. Like other types of demand, factor demand relates the price and quantity. Specifically, factor demand is the range of factor quantities that are demanded at a range of factor prices. This is one half of the factor market. The other half is factor supply. The factors of production subject to factor demand include any and all of the four scarce resources--labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship. However, because labor involves human beings directly, it is the factor that tends to receive the most scrutiny and analysis.

     See also | factors of production | factor market | factor price | demand | labor | capital | land | entrepreneurship | factor demand curve | factor demand determinants | factor supply | factor demand and marginal revenue product |


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FACTOR DEMAND, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: September 23, 2018].


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AUTONOMOUS SAVING

Household saving that does not depend on income or production (especially disposable income, national income, or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in saving. Autonomous saving is best thought of as a baseline level of saving (usually negative) that the household sector undertakes in the unlikely event that income falls to zero. It is measured by the intercept term of the saving function or the saving line. The alternative to autonomous saving is induced saving, which does depend on income.

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