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January 19, 2018 

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SHORT RUN, MACROECONOMICS: In terms of the macroeconomic analysis of the aggregate market, a period of time in which some prices, especially wages, are rigid, inflexible, or otherwise in the process of adjusting. This is one of two macroeconomic time designations; the other is the long run (you might want to see short-run production, too). Short-run wage and price rigidity prevents some markets, especially resources markets and most notably labor markets, from achieving equilibrium. Wage and price rigidity and the resulting resource market imbalances are the source of the positively-sloped short-run aggregate supply curve.

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FACTOR MARKET EQUILIBRIUM: Equilibrium in the factor market, which for a perfectly competitive market is achieved at the factor price and factor quantity give by the intersection of the factor demand curve and the factor supply curve. For factor markets that are not perfectly competitive, such as those controlled by monopoly or monopsony, factor market equilibrium is achieved when the controlling firm maximizes profit. For monopoly, this is the factor quantity that equates marginal revenue and marginal cost. For monopsony, this is the factor quantity that equates marginal revenue product with marginal factor cost. But regardless of marginal structure, as an equilibrium it is maintained until shocked by an external force.

     See also | factor market | equilibrium | marginal productivity theory | factor price | perfect competition | monopoly | monopsony | profit maximization | marginal revenue | marginal cost | marginal revenue product | marginal factor cost | factor demand determinants | factor supply determinants |


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FACTOR DEMAND

The willingness and ability of productive activities (usually, business firms) to hire or employ factors of production. Factor demand relates factor price and factor quantity, specifically, it is the range of factor quantities that are demanded at a range of factor prices. This is one half of the factor market. The other half is factor supply. The factors of production subject to factor demand include any and all of the four scarce resources--labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship. However, because labor involves human beings directly, it is the factor that tends to receive the most scrutiny and analysis.

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