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October 19, 2018 

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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE: A principle of taxation in which taxes are based on the income or resource-ownership ability of people to pay the tax. The income tax collected by our friends at the Internal Revenue Service is one of the most common taxes that seeks to abide by the ability-to-pay principle. In theory, the income tax system is set up such that people with greater incomes pay more taxes. Proportional and progressive taxes follow this ability-to-pay principle, while regressive taxes, such as sales taxes and Social Security taxes, don't.

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FACTOR MARKET EQUILIBRIUM: Equilibrium in the factor market, which for a perfectly competitive market is achieved at the factor price and factor quantity give by the intersection of the factor demand curve and the factor supply curve. For factor markets that are not perfectly competitive, such as those controlled by monopoly or monopsony, factor market equilibrium is achieved when the controlling firm maximizes profit. For monopoly, this is the factor quantity that equates marginal revenue and marginal cost. For monopsony, this is the factor quantity that equates marginal revenue product with marginal factor cost. But regardless of marginal structure, as an equilibrium it is maintained until shocked by an external force.

     See also | factor market | equilibrium | marginal productivity theory | factor price | perfect competition | monopoly | monopsony | profit maximization | marginal revenue | marginal cost | marginal revenue product | marginal factor cost | factor demand determinants | factor supply determinants |


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TWO-SECTOR, TWO-MARKET CIRCULAR FLOW

A simple circular flow model of the macroeconomy containing two sectors (business and household) and two markets (product and factor) that illustrates the continuous movement of the payments for goods and services between producers and consumers. The payment flow between the two sectors and two markets is conveniently divided into four segments representing consumption expenditures, gross domestic product, factor payments, and national income. More advanced models containing additional flow segments are two-sector, three-market circular flow; three-sector, three-market circular flow; and four-sector, three-market circular flow.

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BLACK DISMALAPOD
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching the newspaper want ads looking to buy either a three-hole paper punch or decorative picture frames. Be on the lookout for jovial bank tellers.
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On a typical day, the United States Mint produces over $1 million worth of dimes.
"Think not of yourself as the architect of your career but as the sculptor. Expect to have to do a lot of hard hammering and chiseling and scraping and polishing. "

-- B. C. Forbes, founder, Forbes magazine

NI
National Income, Net Income
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