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June 18, 2024 

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IMPORT QUOTA: A limit on the importation of a particular good brought into one country from another country. An import quota, for example, would stipulate something like only X million pounds of swiss cheese can be imported into the United States from Switzerland each year. Such import quotas are a popular type of nontariff barrier imposed by countries throughout the world, competing with tariffs as the number one trade restriction. The general justification for import quotas is to protect domestic firms and industries from unfair competition by foreign companies. While this can be needed, import quotas are frequently used by oligopoly firms, with significant political influence to limit competition and maintain market control.

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GOLD STANDARD: Use of gold as the standard for valuing a nation's currency. A gold standard can take at least three different forms, most of which have been part of the American economic landscape. (1) Gold is used as the money in circulation. (2) Gold is used to back up paper money in circulation. This involves the use of something like a gold certificate, such that the number of certificates in circulation is the same as the amount of gold stored someplace like Fort Knox. (3) Gold is used to fix the exchange price of paper currency in circulation. In this case, the currency could, in principle, be exchanged for some predetermined amount of gold. In other words, the price of gold is fixed in terms of dollars.

     See also | money | gold certificate | currency | Federal Reserve System |


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INFLATIONARY GAP, KEYNESIAN MODEL

The difference between equilibrium aggregate production achieved in the Keynesian model and full-employment aggregate production that occurs when equilibrium aggregate production is greater than full-employment aggregate production. An inflationary gap, also termed an expansionary gap, is associated with a business-cycle expansion. The prescribed Keynesian remedy for an inflationary gap is contractionary fiscal policy. This is one of two alternative output gaps that can occur when equilibrium generates production that differs from full employment. The other is a recessionary gap.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time browsing through a long list of dot com websites wanting to buy either several orange mixing bowls or clothing for your pet dog. Be on the lookout for pencil sharpeners with an attitude.
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