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July 23, 2019 

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HERFINDAHL-HIRSHMAN INDEX: A measure of concentration of the production in an industry that's calculated as the sum of the squares of market shares for each firm. This is an alternative method of summarizing the degree to which an industry is oligopolistic and the relative concentration of market power held by the largest firms in the industry. The Herfindahl index gives a better indication of the relative market control of the largest firms than can be found with the four-firm and eight-firm concentration ratios.

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GOLD STANDARD: Use of gold as the standard for valuing a nation's currency. A gold standard can take at least three different forms, most of which have been part of the American economic landscape. (1) Gold is used as the money in circulation. (2) Gold is used to back up paper money in circulation. This involves the use of something like a gold certificate, such that the number of certificates in circulation is the same as the amount of gold stored someplace like Fort Knox. (3) Gold is used to fix the exchange price of paper currency in circulation. In this case, the currency could, in principle, be exchanged for some predetermined amount of gold. In other words, the price of gold is fixed in terms of dollars.

     See also | money | gold certificate | currency | Federal Reserve System |


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AGGREGATE SUPPLY SHIFTS

Changes in the aggregate supply determinants shift both the short-run aggregate supply curve and the long-run aggregate supply curve. The mechanism is comparable to that for market supply determinants and market supply. There are two options--an increase in aggregate supply and a decrease in aggregate supply. An increase in resource quantity or quality or a decrease in resource price shifts one or both of the aggregate supply curves to right. A decrease in resource quantity or quality or an increase in resource price shifts one or both of the aggregate supply curves to left.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time touring the new suburban shopping complex seeking to buy either hand lotion, a big bottle of hand lotion or a lighted magnifying glass. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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Francis Bacon (1561-1626), a champion of the scientific method, died when he caught a severe cold while attempting to preserve a chicken by filling it with snow.
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