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May 27, 2022 

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FACTOR MARKET EQUILIBRIUM: Equilibrium in the factor market, which for a perfectly competitive market is achieved at the factor price and factor quantity give by the intersection of the factor demand curve and the factor supply curve. For factor markets that are not perfectly competitive, such as those controlled by monopoly or monopsony, factor market equilibrium is achieved when the controlling firm maximizes profit. For monopoly, this is the factor quantity that equates marginal revenue and marginal cost. For monopsony, this is the factor quantity that equates marginal revenue product with marginal factor cost. But regardless of marginal structure, as an equilibrium it is maintained until shocked by an external force.

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IMPORT QUOTA: A limit on the importation of a particular good brought into one country from another country. An import quota, for example, would stipulate something like only X million pounds of swiss cheese can be imported into the United States from Switzerland each year. Such import quotas are a popular type of nontariff barrier imposed by countries throughout the world, competing with tariffs as the number one trade restriction. The general justification for import quotas is to protect domestic firms and industries from unfair competition by foreign companies. While this can be needed, import quotas are frequently used by oligopoly firms, with significant political influence to limit competition and maintain market control.

     See also | import | trade barrier | nontariff barrier | tariff | import substitution | opportunity cost | efficiency | competition | market control | oligopoly | competition among the few | unfair competition |


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AGGREGATE MARKET

An economic model relating the price level and real production that is used to analyze business cycles, gross production, unemployment, inflation, stabilization policies, and related macroeconomic phenomena. The aggregate market, inspired by the standard market model, but adapted to the macroeconomy, captures the interaction between aggregate demand (the buyers) and short-run and long-run aggregate supply (the sellers). Also known by the names AS-AD model or income-price model, the aggregate market is THE cornerstone model of macroeconomic analysis.

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