March 21, 2018 

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UTIL: An hypothetical, as in totally fabricated, unit of measurement for utility that's used by economists to present hypothetical information about utility and consumer demand theory. Economists are fond of making up hypothetical stuff, especially if it drives home an important economic notion. In this case, the term "util" (also frequently used in plural as "utils") is a convenient way to discuss utility and the satisfaction of wants and needs that consumers obtain from consuming or using a good.

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TARIFF: A tax that's usually on imports, but occasionally (very rarely) on exports. This is one form of trade barrier that's intended to restrict imports into a country. Unlike nontariff barriers and quotas which increase prices and thus revenue received by domestic producers, a tariff generates revenue for the government. Most pointy-headed economists who spend their waking hours pondering the plight of foreign trade contend that the best way to restrict trade, if that's what you want to do, is through a tariff.

     See also | trade barrier | tax | import | export | nontariff barrier | quota | foreign trade |

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A given proportional change in all resources in the long run results in the same proportional change in production. Constant returns to scale exists if a firm increases ALL resources--labor, capital, and other inputs--by 10 percent, and output also increases by 10 percent. This is one of three returns to scale. The other two are increasing returns to scale and decreasing returns to scale.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time visiting every yard sale in a 30-mile radius looking to buy either a rechargeable battery for your camera or a coffee cup commemorating the first day of spring. Be on the lookout for attractive cable television service repair people.
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In 1914, Ford paid workers who were age 22 or older $5 per day -- double the average wage offered by other car factories.
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