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IMPORT SUBSTITUTION: A strategy for economic development for a country based on replacing imported goods with domestic production. This is often directed toward imported inputs used for domestic production. The goal of this policy is to encourage domestic production, which subsequently increases domestic income and consumption. A contrasting economic development is export promotion.

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INDEX: A measure of the relative average of a group of items compared to a given base value. Index measures are commonly used in economics to combine and compare diverse measures. One common type of index measure is for prices, such as the Consumer Price Index and the Dow Jones Industrial Average of corporate stock prices. Another noted type of index measure is to track macroeconomic activity, especially the index leading economic indicators. Indexes are usually weighted averages rather than simple arithmetic means that are measured relative to a base value or period. The Consumer Price Index, for example, measures the prices of consumer good, weighted by the quantities purchased. The value of a given period is then stated relative to a base year value, which generates a pure, "unitless" number in the range of 100 (give or take).

     See also | Consumer Price Index | Dow Jones averages | Standard & Poor's 500 | NASDAQ | GDP price deflator | leading economic indicator | lagging economic indicator | coincident economic indicator |


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TAXATION BASICS

Taxes are mandatory payments from members of society to governments. The total tax revenue collected from a specific tax can be identified as the product of the tax rate times the tax base. The tax base can be specified as either a physical quantity or monetary value, giving rise to two types of tax per unit tax (quantity) and ad valorem tax (value). In some cases it is useful to specify a tax rate as an average tax rate and in other cases as a marginal tax rate.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the shopping mall hoping to buy either a wall poster commemorating the 2000 Olympics or a flower arrangement with a lot of roses for your grandmother. Be on the lookout for pencil sharpeners with an attitude.
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The first "Black Friday" on record, a friday marked by a major financial catastrophe, occurred on September 24, 1869 -- A FRIDAY -- when an attempted cornering of the gold market induced a financial crises and economy-wide depression.
"I think luck is the sense to recognize an opportunity and the ability to take advantage of it . The man who can smile at his breaks and grabs his chance gets on."

-- Samuel Goldwyn, Film executive

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