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January 26, 2022 

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BANK OF THE UNITED STATES: This was actually two central banks that preceded the Federal Reserve System as the nation's monetary authority. The First Bank of the United States, under the design of Alexander Hamilton, commenced operations in 1791, almost immediately after the U.S. Constitution was written and George Washington became the first U.S. President. Its charter was not renewed and it ceased to operate in 1811. Financial instability resulting from the absence of a central bank over the next few years prompted the formation of the Second Bank of the United States in 1816. The Second Bank's performance, however, was somewhat more suspect. When it knocked heads with President Andrew Jackson, a strong critic of central banking, the Second Bank ceased to be in 1836.

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INDEX: A measure of the relative average of a group of items compared to a given base value. Index measures are commonly used in economics to combine and compare diverse measures. One common type of index measure is for prices, such as the Consumer Price Index and the Dow Jones Industrial Average of corporate stock prices. Another noted type of index measure is to track macroeconomic activity, especially the index leading economic indicators. Indexes are usually weighted averages rather than simple arithmetic means that are measured relative to a base value or period. The Consumer Price Index, for example, measures the prices of consumer good, weighted by the quantities purchased. The value of a given period is then stated relative to a base year value, which generates a pure, "unitless" number in the range of 100 (give or take).

     See also | Consumer Price Index | Dow Jones averages | Standard & Poor's 500 | NASDAQ | GDP price deflator | leading economic indicator | lagging economic indicator | coincident economic indicator |


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LOSS MINIMIZATION RULE

A rule stating that a firm minimizes economic loss by producing output in the short run that equates marginal revenue and marginal cost if price is less than average total cost but greater than average variable cost. This is one of three short-run production alternatives facing a firm. The other two are profit maximization (if price exceeds average total cost) and shutdown (if price is less than average variable cost).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store seeking to buy either a T-shirt commemorating the 2000 Olympics or a genuine fake plastic Tiffany lamp. Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen were the 1st Nobel Prize winners in Economics in 1969.
"It has been my philosophy of life that difficulties vanish when faced boldly. "

-- Isaac Asimov

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