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December 15, 2018 

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INDIFFERENCE CURVE: A curve that graphically depicts various combinations of goods that generate the same level of utility to a consumer. In other words, a consumer is "indifferent" among any of the bundles because they all provide the same satisfaction. Indifference curves are combined with a budget line or constraint for indifference curve analysis used to explain many aspects of demand, including the slope of the demand curve and the income and substitution effects.

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NEAR-PUBLIC GOOD: A good that's easy to keep nonpayers from consuming, but use of the good by one person doesn't prevent use by others. The trick with a near-public good is that it's easy to keep people away, and thus you can charge them a price for consuming, but there's no real good reason to do so. From an efficiency view, the more people who consume a near-public good, the better off society. This mixture of nearly unlimited benefits and the ability to charge a price means that some near-public goods are sold through markets and others are provided by government. For efficiency's sake, none should be sold through markets.

     See also | excludability | rival consumption | good types | common-property good | public good | private good | efficiency | user charge |


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TAX EFFICIENCY

Taxes, mandatory payments used to finance government operations, inherently disrupt the allocation of resources. This disruption might be good, correcting an otherwise inefficient allocation caused by pollution or market control. However, for an already efficiency allocation, a tax creates and inefficient wedge between the demand price and the supply price. This tax is generally paid partially by buyers and partially by sellers, which the tax incidence. Inefficiency arises because a tax reduces the total amount of consumer surplus and producer surplus, which is deadweight loss.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a crowded estate auction wanting to buy either a case for your designer sunglasses or arch supports for your shoes. Be on the lookout for fairy dust that tastes like salt.
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Okun's Law posits that the unemployment rate increases by 1% for every 2% gap between real GDP and full-employment real GDP.
"Our goals can only be reached through a vehicle of a plan, in which we must fervently believe, and upon which we must vigorously act. There is no other route to success. "

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