March 23, 2018 

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HARD PEG: Establishing a fixed exchange rate between one national currency (usually that of a small country) and another national currency (usually that of an industrial power). One country, in other words, "pegs" the value of its currency to the value of another currency. This is commonly done by countries with a history of monetary instability is used as a means of restoring and maintaining order. This U.S. dollar is frequently used for a hard peg by other smaller nations. The result of a hard peg is to eliminate control by the pegging nation and relying on the actions of the targeting nation.

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NEAR-PUBLIC GOOD: A good that's easy to keep nonpayers from consuming, but use of the good by one person doesn't prevent use by others. The trick with a near-public good is that it's easy to keep people away, and thus you can charge them a price for consuming, but there's no real good reason to do so. From an efficiency view, the more people who consume a near-public good, the better off society. This mixture of nearly unlimited benefits and the ability to charge a price means that some near-public goods are sold through markets and others are provided by government. For efficiency's sake, none should be sold through markets.

     See also | excludability | rival consumption | good types | common-property good | public good | private good | efficiency | user charge |

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Total cost per unit of output, found by dividing total cost by the quantity of output. When compared with price (per unit revenue), average total cost (ATC) indicates the per unit profitability of a profit-maximizing firm. Average total cost is one of three average cost concepts important to short-run production analysis. The other two are average fixed cost and average variable cost. A related concept is marginal cost.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through the yellow pages seeking to buy either a wall poster commemorating yesterday or pink cotton balls. Be on the lookout for mail order catalogs with hidden messages.
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The first paper notes printed in the United States were in denominations of 1 cent, 5 cents, 25 cents, and 50 cents.
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