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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURE LINE: A line representing the relation between aggregate expenditures and gross domestic product used in the Keynesian cross. The aggregate expenditure line is obtained by adding investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports to the consumption line. As such, the slope of the aggregate expenditure line is largely based on the slope of the consumption line (which is the marginal propensity to consume), with adjustments coming from the marginal propensity to invest, the marginal propensity for government purchases, and the marginal propensity to import. The intersection of the aggregate expenditures line and the 45-degree line identifies the equilibrium level of output in the Keynesian cross.

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PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES CURVE: A curve that illustrates the production possibilities for the economy. A production possibilities curve (or PPC), like the one presented here, represents the boundary or frontier of the economy's production capabilities. That's why it's also frequently termed a production possibilities frontier (or PPF). As a frontier, it is the maximum production possible given existing (fixed) resources and technology. Producing on the curve means resources are fully employed, while producing inside the curve means resources are unemployed. The law of increasing opportunity cost is what gives the curve its distinctive convex shape.

     See also | production possibilities | production possibilities schedule | resources | technology | full employment | unemployment | opportunity cost | economic growth | law of increasing opportunity cost | scarcity | convex |


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PERFECT COMPETITION, EFFICIENCY

Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that achieves an efficient allocation of resources. This efficiency is achieved because the profit-maximizing quantity of output produced by a perfectly competitive firm results in the equality between price and marginal cost. In the short run, this involves the equality between price and short-run marginal cost. In the long run, this is seen with the equality between price and long-run marginal cost at the minimum efficient scale of production.

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Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland, was the pseudonym of Charles Dodgson, an accomplished mathematician and economist.
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