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February 1, 2023 

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ACCOUNTING COST: The actual outlays or expenses incurred in production that shows up a firm's accounting statements or records. Accounting costs, while very important to accountants, company CEOs, shareholders, and the Internal Revenue Service, is only minimally important to economists. The reason is that economists are primarily interested in economic cost (also called opportunity cost). That fact is that accounting costs and economic costs aren't always the same. An opportunity or economic cost is the value of foregone production. Some economic costs, actually a lot of economic opportunity costs, never show up as accounting costs. Moreover, some accounting costs, while legal, bonified payments by a firm, are not associated with any sort of opportunity cost.

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TAX INCIDENCE: The ultimate payment of a tax. Many taxes are initially paid by one person, but passed along through production and consumption activities until it finally reaches someone else. An obvious example is the sales tax. While officially paid by the retail store (they write the check to the government), it's tacked on to the prices paid by consumers. Consumers, thus, bear the lion's share of most sales taxes. The incidence of other taxes is not quite so obvious. Some taxes are paid by producers early in production such as severance taxes on oil extraction without the knowledge of consumers, who end up paying through higher prices. As a general rule taxes are passed through the system until they reach someone (usually consumers) who can pass it no further.

     See also | tax | production | consumption | demand price | supply price | sales tax | severance tax |


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TAX INCIDENCE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2023. [Accessed: February 1, 2023].


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CONSUMER CONFIDENCE, AGGREGATE DEMAND DETERMINANT

One of several specific aggregate demand determinants assumed constant when the aggregate demand curve is constructed, and which shifts the aggregate demand curve when it changes. An increase in consumer confidence causes an increase (rightward shift) of the aggregate demand curve. A decrease in consumer confidence causes a decrease (leftward shift) of the aggregate demand curve. Other notable aggregate demand determinants include interest rates, federal deficit, inflationary expectations, and the money supply.

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