AFL: The abbreviation for the American Federation of Labor, which started as a collection of craft unions in 1886, this is now one half of the umbrella organization for labor unions in the United States (the AFL part of AFL-CIO). As a collection of craft unions, the AFL primarily represented skilled workers in particular occupations. However, it also contained unions representing unskilled industrial workers, which led to a rift among AFL members in 1938 and spawned the formation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). This rift was closed in 1955, when both joined together to form the AFL-CIO, which is the primary advocate for workers and labor unions in the United States.
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SUPPLY-DRIVEN BUSINESS CYCLES:
Business-cycle instability caused by changes in one or more of the determinants underlying the aggregate supply of gross domestic product--including resource quantity, resource quality, and resource price. This is one of two basic types of business cycles--the other being demand-driven business cycles. Supply-driven business cycles tend to be the less common of the two types. Supply-driven business cycles occur when shocks to the aggregate supply side of the economy create instability. An increase in aggregate supply triggers an expansion and a decrease in aggregate supply causes a contraction.
While the factors that influence the supply of gross domestic product--including production cost, technology, and resource quantity--tend to change slowly and are more relevant for long-run economic growth, they have triggered short-run business-cycle instability. The most noted example was stagflation during the 1970s that occurred due to higher energy prices and other disruptions on the supply side.
The ProcessRegardless of which aggregate supply determinant does the changing, the overall pattern is much the same.
- Heading Down: A supply-driven business-cycle contraction results from a decrease in aggregate supply caused by higher production cost (especially wages or energy prices), a decline in technology (rare, but possible), or a decrease in the quantity of any resource (labor, capital, land, or entrepreneurship).
The resulting decline in production capabilities means less gross domestic product is available for purchase by the four aggregate sectors. Consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports necessarily decline. If the decrease in aggregate supply is the result of anything other than a decrease in the quantity of labor, then the decline in production entails an increase in unemployment. Because the four aggregate sectors are unable to buy all of the gross domestic product that they previous wanted, then they are likely to offer higher prices, meaning inflation tends to rise.
The end result is a business-cycle contraction. Less output is produced and unemployment is higher. This contraction, however, has a twist. Inflation is also higher.
- Going Up: A supply-driven business-cycle expansion results from an increase in aggregate supply, caused by lower production cost, a jump in technology, or an increase in the quantity of any resource. The resulting expansion in production capabilities means more gross domestic product is available for purchase by the four aggregate sectors. The end result is a business-cycle expansion. More output is produced and unemployment is lower. This expansion also has an added benefit. Inflation is lower.
Unemployment And InflationAn important implication of supply-driven business cycles is the lack of a tradeoff between unemployment and inflation.
Unemployment and inflation generally change in the same direction (both increasing or both decreasing) during supply-driven business cycles. As such, policies that seek to work with a tradeoff between unemployment and inflation generally worsen both at the same time.
- During the contraction phase of a supply-driven business cycle, both unemployment and inflation tend to increase.
- During the expansion phase of a supply-driven business cycle, both unemployment and inflation tend to decrease.
Long-Run GrowthSupply-driven business cycles are not the norm when it comes to instability. Most business-cycle instability is demand driven. The reason is that supply-side factors tend to change slowly and predictably. Much like the sun rises each morning, the quantities of labor and capital increase steadily each year. Technology, education, and other resource quality attributes also increase slowly and relatively predictably. These things DO change, but they change so predictably that they are part of the basic structure of the economy. Government and business leaders generally plan on a given level of change in these factors when implementing policies.
Supply-driven business cycles result when these things DO NOT change as expected; when technology does not increase as expected or when it has a monumental surge; when an usually high or low number of people enter or leave the labor force; or most notably, when a production-cost component, such as energy prices, takes a big jump or drop.
SUPPLY-DRIVEN BUSINESS CYCLES, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: March 2, 2024].
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