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September 25, 2022 

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DISPOSABLE INCOME AND PERSONAL INCOME: Disposable income (DI) is the total income that can be used by the household sector for either consumption or saving during a given period of time, usually one year. Personal income (PI) is the total income received by the members of the domestic household sector, which may or may not be earned from productive activities during a given period of time, usually one year. Disposable income is after-tax income that is officially calculated as the difference between personal income and personal tax and nontax payments. In the numbers game, personal tax and nontax payments are about 15 percent of personal income, which makes disposable personal income about 85 percent of personal income.

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VOLUNTARY EXCHANGE:

The process of willingly trading one valuable commodity (good, service, or resource) for another. The key term is "willingly," which distinguishes voluntary exchanges from involuntary exchanges, such as those created by government taxes. Voluntary exchanges are the foundation of market transactions.
Market transactions rely on voluntary exchanges. Buyers voluntarily trade money for a good and sellers voluntary trade a good for money. Neither buyers nor sellers are forced to engage in the exchange. They do so of their own free will.

A Voluntary Exchange

Suppose, for example, that Edgar Millbottom, Shady Valley's resident teenage musical connoisseur, has come across a shoebox full of classic 8-track tapes, containing the memorable works of Englebert Humperdink, while rummaging through his attic. Because Edgar's musical tastes run more in the direction of rock groups like Live Headless Squirrels, he is willing and able to part with these 8-track treasures. A few phone calls, a newspaper ad, and some flyers at the mall, produce an interested party, Pollyanna Pumpernickel, who happens to be a die-hard Humperdink fan.

Edgar and Pollyanna are prime candidates for a voluntary exchange; a voluntary exchange that is beneficial to both. Edgar gives up his dust-collecting shoebox of Humperdink 8-track tapes and receives a modest monetary payment. His living standard ratchets up a notch or two. Pollyanna also benefits from this exchange. She parts with a modest monetary payment and receives a treasured set of Englebert Humperdink 8-track tapes.

Voluntary for Both

This voluntary exchange only happens if BOTH sides are agreeable. Should Edgar develop a liking for Humperdink music and is not willing to part with these items, then the exchange does not happen. If Pollyanna finds other uses for the modest monetary payment, such as repairing the hole in her roof created by an exploding hot water heater, then the exchange does not happen. Unless BOTH sides want the exchange, it does not happen.

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Recommended Citation:

VOLUNTARY EXCHANGE, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: September 25, 2022].


Check Out These Related Terms...

     | market | exchange | competition | competitive market |


Or For A Little Background...

     | allocation | three questions of allocation | price | quantity | efficiency |


And For Further Study...

     | division of labor | private sector | capitalism | ownership and control | property rights | invisible hand | free enterprise | specialization |


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