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DEADWEIGHT LOSS: A net loss in social welfare that results because the benefit generated by an action differs from the foregone opportunity cost. This is usually the combination of lost consumer surplus and lost producer surplus, and indicates of the inefficiency of a situation. Deadweight loss is commonly illustrated by a market diagram if the quantity of output produced results in a demand price that exceeds the supply price. The triangle formed by the demand curve above, supply curve below, and quantity to the left is the area of deadweight loss. If demand price equals supply price, this triangle disappears and so too does the deadweight loss. Deadweight loss can result from government actions (taxes, price controls) or from market failures (externalities, market control)

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GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES: Spending by the government sector including both the purchase of final goods and services, or gross domestic product, and transfer payments. Government expenditures are used by the government sector to undertake key functions, such as national defense and education. These expenditures are financed with a combination of taxes and borrowing.

     See also | government purchases | government borrowing | consumption expenditures | investment expenditures | net exports | taxes | investment | saving | investment borrowing | government sector | government functions | public sector | stabilization policies | macroeconomics | circular flow | business cycles | economic goals | macroeconomic sectors | macroeconomic markets | macroeconomic problems | macroeconomic theories | determinants | political views | ownership and control | political business cycles | property rights |


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MARGINAL REVENUE PRODUCT AND FACTOR DEMAND

A perfectly competitive firm's factor demand curve is that negatively-sloped portion of its marginal revenue product curve. A perfectly competitive firm maximizes profit by hiring the quantity of input that equates factor price and marginal revenue product. As such, the firm moves along its negatively-sloped marginal revenue product curve in response to changing factor prices.

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