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January 20, 2019 

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

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FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION: An independent federal agency run by a 5-member commission that's charged by Congress with preventing unfair and deceptive business activities and other various monopoly practices that tend to inhibit competition. The FTC was set up in 1914 to help the Justice Department enforce a growing number of antitrust laws. It has the authority to restrict assorted market monopolizing practices, such as mergers, false or misleading advertising, price discrimination, and price fixing. Since the time of it's formation, the FTC has grown into an important consumer protection agency.

     See also | monopoly | competition | antitrust laws | merger | price discrimination | price fixing | unfair competition | advertising |


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BUYERS' INCOME, DEMAND DETERMINANT

The income that buyers have available to purchase a good, which is assumed constant when a demand curve is constructed. Buyers' income is one of five demand determinants that shift the demand curve when they change. The other four are buyers' preferences, other prices, buyers' expectations, and number of buyers.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time surfing the Internet looking to buy either a green and yellow striped sweater vest or a Boston Red Sox baseball cap. Be on the lookout for strangers with large satchels of used undergarments.
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The 22.6% decline in stock prices on October 19, 1987 was larger than the infamous 12.8% decline on October 29, 1929.
"Act well at the moment, and you have performed a good action for all eternity."

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