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January 21, 2019 

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VALUE-ADDED TAX: A tax on the extra value added during each stage in the production of a good. Most of the stuff our economy produces goes through several "stages," usually with different businesses. In each stage, resources do their thing to the good to make it a little more valuable. For example, an ice cream store can take 50 cents worth of ice cream, fudge, and whipped topping and turn it into a hot fudge sundae that's valued at $1.50. The efforts of the ice cream resources thus add $1 in value. A value-added tax is based on this extra value. While it's been debated off and on in the United States, a value-added tax is commonly used in Europe.

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PRICE DISCRIMINATION: Charging different prices to different buyers for the same good. This is an age old practice for suppliers who have achieved some degree of market control, especially those with a monopoly. The reason for price discrimination, of course, is higher profit. To be a successful price discriminator you must be able to do three things--(1) have market control and be a price maker, (2) identify two or more groups that are willing to pay different prices, and (3) keep the buyers in one group from reselling the good to another group. In this way, you will be able to charge each group what they, and they alone, are willing to pay.

     See also | market control | monopoly | profit | perfect price discrimination | first-degree price discrimination | second-degree price discrimination | third-degree price discrimination | price maker |


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PRICE DISCRIMINATION, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: January 21, 2019].


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TAXES

Legally mandated payments to government that are NOT made in exchange for a good or service. The primary reason government collects taxes is the revenue needed to pay for government expenditures, especially administrative expenses and the provision of public goods. Taxes are one of two methods of obtaining the revenue the government sector uses to pay for expenditures. The other is government borrowing.

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