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LRAC CURVE: The common abbreviation for the long-run average cost curve, which is a curve depicting the per unit cost of producing a good or service in the long run when all inputs are variable. The long-run average cost curve can be derived in two ways. On is to plot long-run average cost, which is, long-run total cost divided by the quantity of output produced. at different output levels. The more common method, however, is as an envelope of an infinite number of short-run average total cost curves. Such an envelope is base on identifying the point on each short-run average total cost curve that provides the lowest possible average cost for each quantity of output. The long-run average cost curve is U-shaped, reflecting economies of scale (or increasing returns to scale) when negatively-sloped and diseconomies of scale (or decreasing returns to scale) when positively sloped. The minimum point (or range) on the LRAC curve is the minimum efficient scale.

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HOTELLING'S RULE: The notion that efficiency and competitive market forces will lead to an increase of scarcity rent of a finite, exhaustible resource that is equal to the interest rate. The logic behind Hotelling's Rule is that as a finite fossil fuel is depleted, less is available in the future, causing scarcity rent, and thus the resource price, to increase. An increase in the resource price reduces the quantity demanded and conserves more for future consumption. When finite, exhaustible resource markets are competitive, this process generates an efficient allocation over time.

     See also | efficiency | competitive market | scarcity rent | exhaustible resource | interest rate | price | quantity demanded | consumption | allocation | investment | switching point | natural resources | recycling |


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AGGREGATE SUPPLY SHIFTS

Changes in the aggregate supply determinants shift both the short-run aggregate supply curve and the long-run aggregate supply curve. The mechanism is comparable to that for market supply determinants and market supply. There are two options--an increase in aggregate supply and a decrease in aggregate supply. An increase in resource quantity or quality or a decrease in resource price shifts one or both of the aggregate supply curves to right. A decrease in resource quantity or quality or an increase in resource price shifts one or both of the aggregate supply curves to left.

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