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January 18, 2020 

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OPEC: The common abbreviation for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which is an international organization of more than a dozen nations located primarily in the Middle East, Africa, and Central America that controls a sizeable portion of the world's petroleum reserves. This control over oil reserves gives OPEC significant market control, which it has been inclined to exert from time to time. The most noted time was the 1970s. OPEC raised oil prices from a scant $2 to $3 a barrel in the early 1970s to over $30 a barrel by the end of the decade. As an group of independent oil-producing nations seeking to monopolize the market, OPEC represents a textbook example of an cartel.

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HOTELLING'S RULE: The notion that efficiency and competitive market forces will lead to an increase of scarcity rent of a finite, exhaustible resource that is equal to the interest rate. The logic behind Hotelling's Rule is that as a finite fossil fuel is depleted, less is available in the future, causing scarcity rent, and thus the resource price, to increase. An increase in the resource price reduces the quantity demanded and conserves more for future consumption. When finite, exhaustible resource markets are competitive, this process generates an efficient allocation over time.

     See also | efficiency | competitive market | scarcity rent | exhaustible resource | interest rate | price | quantity demanded | consumption | allocation | investment | switching point | natural resources | recycling |


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INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE

A given proportional change in all resources in the long run results in a proportional greater change in production. Increasing returns to scale exists if a firm increases ALL resources--labor, capital, and other inputs--by a given proportion (say 10 percent) and output increases by more than this proportion (that is more than 10 percent). This is one of three returns to scale. The other two are decreasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers trying to buy either storage boxes for your summer clothes or 500 feet of coaxial cable. Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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General Electric is the only stock from the original 1896 Dow Jones Industrial Average remaining in the current index.
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