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January 17, 2018 

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GOLD STANDARD: Use of gold as the standard for valuing a nation's currency. A gold standard can take at least three different forms, most of which have been part of the American economic landscape. (1) Gold is used as the money in circulation. (2) Gold is used to back up paper money in circulation. This involves the use of something like a gold certificate, such that the number of certificates in circulation is the same as the amount of gold stored someplace like Fort Knox. (3) Gold is used to fix the exchange price of paper currency in circulation. In this case, the currency could, in principle, be exchanged for some predetermined amount of gold. In other words, the price of gold is fixed in terms of dollars.

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OPEC: The common abbreviation for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which is an international organization of more than a dozen nations located primarily in the Middle East, Africa, and Central America that controls a sizeable portion of the world's petroleum reserves. This control over oil reserves gives OPEC significant market control, which it has been inclined to exert from time to time. The most noted time was the 1970s. OPEC raised oil prices from a scant $2 to $3 a barrel in the early 1970s to over $30 a barrel by the end of the decade. As an group of independent oil-producing nations seeking to monopolize the market, OPEC represents a textbook example of an cartel.

     See also | market control | monopoly | cartel | entry barriers | exhaustible resource | Hotelling's Rule | switching point | natural resources |


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AUTONOMOUS EXPENDITURES

Expenditures on aggregate production by the four macroeconomic sectors that do not depend on income or production (especially national income or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in these expenditures. Each of the four aggregate expenditures--consumption, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports--have an autonomous component. Autonomous expenditures are affected by the ceteris paribus aggregate expenditures determinants and are measured by the intercept term of the aggregate expenditures line. The alternative to autonomous expenditures are induced expenditures, expenditures which do depend on income.

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