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May 26, 2022 

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RISK PREMIUM: This has two very closely related uses. First, it's what risk averse people are willing to pay to avoid a risky situation. For example, if you would be equally happy with a guaranteed $900 or a 50-50 chance of getting either $500 or $1,500, then you're risk premium is $100. Second, it's the extra percentage points added to an interest rate to compensate for the risk of a loan. As a general rule, each 1 percent chance of default on a loan adds a risk premium of about 1 percent to the interest rate.

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CARTEL: A formal agreement between businesses in the same industry, usually on an international scale, to get market control, raise the market price, and otherwise act like a monopoly. A cartel tends to be unstable because the artificially high prices it sets gives each member of the cartel an incentive to "cheat" with a slightly lower price. When only one member of the cartel lowers the price, it can make oodles of profit by taking customers away from the other members. If they all cheat, the cartel falls apart. While cartels damage efficiency, they're power is often short-lived because of this cheating. Like collusion and other techniques of market control, cartels are illegal in the United States.

     See also | collusion | market control | oligopoly | monopoly | industry | efficiency | profit | antitrust laws |


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CARTEL, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: May 26, 2022].


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AUTONOMOUS GOVERNMENT PURCHASES

Government purchases by the government sector that do not depend on income or production (especially national income or gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in government purchases. Autonomous government purchases are best thought of as government purchases that the government sector undertake independent of income. They are measured by the intercept term of the government purchases line. The alternative to autonomous government purchases is induced government purchases, which do depend on income.

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