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December 12, 2018 

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KALDOR-HICKS EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if the monetary value of society's resources are maximized. This is achieved if the marginal willingness to pay by those who benefit from an action is equal to the marginal willingness to accept of those harmed. If this condition is not achieved, then a Kaldor-Hicks improvement is possible. Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, named after Nicholas Kaldor and John Hicks, is the theoretical basis of benefit-cost analysis, a technique commonly used to evaluate the desirability of producing public goods (such as parks, highways, or reservoirs). This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Pareto efficiency.

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ENTRY BARRIERS: Institutional, government, technological, or economic restrictions on the entry of firms into a market or industry. The four primary barriers to entry are: resource ownership, patents and copyrights, government restrictions, and start-up costs. Barriers to entry are a key reason for market control and the inefficiency that this generates. In particular, monopoly, oligopoly, monopsony, and oligopsony often owe their market control to assorted barriers to entry. By way of contrast, perfect competition, monopolistic competition, and monopsonistic competition have few if any barriers to entry and thus little or no market control.

     See also | institution | government | technology | firm | market | market control | inefficiency | monopoly | monopsony | oligopsony | perfect competition | monopolistic competition | monopsonistic competition |


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COINCIDENT ECONOMIC INDICATORS

Four economic statistics that tend to move up or down along WITH business-cycle expansions and contractions. Most importantly, these measures indicate peak and trough turning points when they actually occur. Coincident economic indicators are one of three groups of economic measures used to track business-cycle activity. The other two are leading economic indicators and lagging economic indicators.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store seeking to buy either a genuine down-filled pillow or one of those "hang in there" kitty cat posters. Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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There were no banks in colonial America before the U.S. Revolutionary War. Anyone seeking a loan did so from another individual.
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-- Helen Keller, lecturer, author

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