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ZERO-BASE BUDGET: A method of budgeting expenditures in which each expenditure is justified on its overall merits rather than being based on the budget for the previous year. A zero-base budget is most often proposed (but seldom implemented) for governments. Governments generally establish budget expenditures based on expenditures for the previous year. If, for example, budget expenditures last year were $100 billion, the requested budget for this year might be set at $110 billion. The existing $100 billion is a "given" and only the extra $10 billion is justified. With a zero-base budget, the entire $110 billion is justified.

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AUTONOMOUS CHANGE: A change in autonomous expenditures that sets in motion a change in the national income and gross domestic product through the multipiler. In terms of Keynesian economics and the Keynesian cross diagram, autonomous changes are seen as shifts in the aggregate expenditures line. Autonomous changes cause changes in income and production which then "induce" further changes in aggregate expenditures, especially consumption expenditures, which are induced changes. This two step process, autonomous changes causing induced changes, is key to explaining business cycle fluctuations.

     See also | autonomous expenditure | induced expenditure | aggregate expenditures line | Keynesian economics | Keynesian cross | multiplier | circular flow | accelerator | business cycle |


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AVERAGE PRODUCT AND MARGINAL PRODUCT

A mathematical connection between average product and marginal product stating that the change in the average product depends on a comparison between the average product and marginal product. If marginal product is less than average product, then average product declines. If marginal product is greater than average product, then average product rises. If marginal product is equal to average product, then average product does not change.

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Junk bonds are so called because they have a better than 50% chance of default, carrying a Standard & Poor's rating of CC or lower.
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