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September 20, 2018 

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OPPORTUNITY COST: The highest valued alternative foregone in the pursuit of an activity. This is a hallmark of anything dealing with economics--and life for that matter--because any action that you take prevents you from doing something else. The ultimate source of opportunity cost is the pervasive problem of scarcity (unlimited wants and needs, but limited resources). Whenever limited resources are used to satisfy one want or need, there are an unlimited number of other wants and needs that remain unsatisfied. Herein lies the essence of opportunity cost. Doing one thing prevents doing another.

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AUTONOMOUS CHANGE: A change in autonomous expenditures that sets in motion a change in the national income and gross domestic product through the multipiler. In terms of Keynesian economics and the Keynesian cross diagram, autonomous changes are seen as shifts in the aggregate expenditures line. Autonomous changes cause changes in income and production which then "induce" further changes in aggregate expenditures, especially consumption expenditures, which are induced changes. This two step process, autonomous changes causing induced changes, is key to explaining business cycle fluctuations.

     See also | autonomous expenditure | induced expenditure | aggregate expenditures line | Keynesian economics | Keynesian cross | multiplier | circular flow | accelerator | business cycle |


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MANAGED FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATE

An exchange rate control policy in which an exchange rate that is generally allowed to adjust to equilibrium levels through to the interaction of supply and demand in the foreign exchange market, but with occasional intervention by government. Also termed managed float or dirty float, most nations of the world currently use a managed flexible exchange rate policy. With this alternative an exchange rate is free to rise and fall, but it is subject to government control if it moves too high or too low. With managed float, the government steps into the foreign exchange market and buys or sells whatever currency is necessary keep the exchange rate within desired limits. This is one of three basic exchange rate policies used by domestic governments. The other two policies are flexible exchange rate and fixed exchange rate.

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Helping spur the U.S. industrial revolution, Thomas Edison patented nearly 1300 inventions, 300 of which came out of his Menlo Park "invention factory" during a four-year period.
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