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SAY'S LAW: A classical economic proposition stating that the production of aggregate output creates sufficient aggregate demand to purchase all of the output produced. In other words, supply creates its own demand. This is one of the three assumptions underlying the macroeconomic theory of classical economics which concluded that unrestricted market activity would generate full employment. The other two assumptions are flexible prices and saving-investment equality. Say's law is closely associated with the circular flow model.

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INDUCED EXPENDITURE: An aggregate expenditure (consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports) that depends on national income or gross domestic product. These four aggregate expenditures are conveniently separated into two types, induced, which is our current topic of expenditures unrelated to national income or GDP, and autonomous expenditures, expenditures which are unrelated to national income or GDP. Induced expenditures are graphically depicted as the slope of the aggregate expenditures line, and depend in large part on the marginal propensity to consume. The induced relation between income and expenditures form the foundation of the multiplier effect triggered by changes in autonomous expenditures.

     See also | aggregate expenditures | autonomous expenditure | consumption expenditures | investment expenditures | government purchases | net exports | gross domestic product | national income | business cycle | multiplier | accelerator | induced consumption | induced investment | aggregate expenditures line |


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SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION ALTERNATIVES

A firm faces three production options in the short run based on a comparison between price, average total cost, and average variable cost. If price is greater than average total cost, a firm earns an economic profit by producing the quantity that equates marginal revenue with marginal cost. If price is less than average total cost but greater than average variable cost, a firm incurs an economic loss, but produces the quantity that equates marginal revenue with marginal cost. If price is less than average variable cost, a firm shuts down production in the short run, incurring an economic loss equal to total fixed cost.

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