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September 19, 2018 

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OLIGOPOLY, CONCENTRATION: Oligopoly is a market structure that contains a small number of relatively large firms, meaning oligopoly markets tend to be concentrated. A small number of large firms account for a majority of total output. Concentration unto itself is not necessarily bad, but it often leads to inefficient behavior, such as collusion and nonprice competition. Concentration is measured in three ways--market share, concentration ratio, Herfindahl index.

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INDUCED EXPENDITURE: An aggregate expenditure (consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports) that depends on national income or gross domestic product. These four aggregate expenditures are conveniently separated into two types, induced, which is our current topic of expenditures unrelated to national income or GDP, and autonomous expenditures, expenditures which are unrelated to national income or GDP. Induced expenditures are graphically depicted as the slope of the aggregate expenditures line, and depend in large part on the marginal propensity to consume. The induced relation between income and expenditures form the foundation of the multiplier effect triggered by changes in autonomous expenditures.

     See also | aggregate expenditures | autonomous expenditure | consumption expenditures | investment expenditures | government purchases | net exports | gross domestic product | national income | business cycle | multiplier | accelerator | induced consumption | induced investment | aggregate expenditures line |


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PERFECT COMPETITION, SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

A perfectly competitive firm produces the profit-maximizing quantity of output that equates marginal revenue and marginal cost. This production level can be identified using total revenue and cost, marginal revenue and cost, or profit. Because a perfectly competitive firm faces a perfectly elastic demand curve, it efficiently allocates resources by equating price and marginal cost. In addition, the marginal cost curve above the average variable cost curve is the perfectly competitive firm's short-run supply curve.

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Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen were the 1st Nobel Prize winners in Economics in 1969.
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