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MARKET STRUCTURE: The manner in which a market is organized, based largely on the number of firms in the industry. The four basic market structure models are: perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly. The primary difference between each is the number of firms on the supply side of a market. Both perfect competition and monopolistic competition have a large number of relatively small firms selling output. Oligopoly has a small number of relatively large firms. And monopoly has a single firm.

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CONSUMPTION TAX: A tax on consumer's spending for goods, services and the other stuff they buy. One sort of consumption tax is the sales tax. Some politicians and balding, bespectacled economists argue that the current income tax system should be replaced with a consumption tax. This means any income that's saved wouldn't be taxed. The idea behind a consumption tax is to encourage saving, which is then used for investment, which then promotes economic growth. Such a tax would be easily implemented (you get a deduction for saving on the current income tax form), but it would tend to be a regressive tax hitting the poor harder than the wealthy.

     See also | consumption | tax | sales tax | income tax | saving | investment | economic growth | regressive tax |


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AUTONOMOUS EXPENDITURES

Expenditures on aggregate production by the four macroeconomic sectors that do not depend on income or production (especially national income or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in these expenditures. Each of the four aggregate expenditures--consumption, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports--have an autonomous component. Autonomous expenditures are affected by the ceteris paribus aggregate expenditures determinants and are measured by the intercept term of the aggregate expenditures line. The alternative to autonomous expenditures are induced expenditures, expenditures which do depend on income.

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