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June 19, 2018 

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CAPACITY UTILIZATION RATE: The ratio of actual production by business sector factories and other productive establishments in the economy to the potential production of these establishments. This rate indicates if our economy's factories are being used as effectively and as fully as possible. Like the unemployment rate, the capacity utilization rate measures how close our economy is to full employment. And like unemployment, this rate moves up and down over the course of a business cycle. During expansions, the rate is near 85 percent (considered full employment), and during contractions, it tends to be in the 70 percent range. In addition to an overall rate, there are also separate rates for manufacturing, mining, and utility industries.

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FACTOR SUPPLY CURVE: A graphical representation of the relation between the price to a factor of production and quantity of the factor supplied, holding all ceteris paribus factor supply determinants constant. The factor supply curve is one half of the factor market. The other half is the factor demand curve. The factor supply curve indicates the quantity of a factor that would be supplied at alternative factor prices. While all factors of production, or scarce resources, including labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship, have factor supply curves, labor is the factor most often analyzed. Like other supply curves, the factor supply curve is generally positively sloped. Higher factor prices are associated with larger quantities supplied and lower factor prices go with smaller quantities supplied.

     See also | factor supply | curve | factor markets | factor price | factors of production | labor | capital | land | entrepreneurship | perfect competition | monopsony | perfectly elastic | marginal factor cost | average factor cost | market control |


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KINKED-DEMAND CURVE

A demand curve with two distinct segments which have different elasticities that join to form a corner or kink. The primary use of the kinked-demand curve is to explain price rigidity in oligopoly. The two segments are: (1) a relatively more elastic segment for price increases and (2) a relatively less elastic segment for price decreases. The relative elasticities of these two segments is based on the interdependent decision-making of oligopolistic firms.

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