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October 18, 2018 

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PERFECT COMPETITION AND EFFICIENCY: Perfect competition is the idealized market structure that achieves an efficient allocation of resources. The conditions of perfect competition, including (1) large number of small firms, (2) identical products sold by all firms, (3) freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and (4) perfect knowledge of prices and technology, ensure that perfect competition efficiently allocates resources. This is in fact the purpose of perfect competition: a market structure that illustrates perfection, the best of all possible resource allocation worlds. The real world falls short of this perfection.

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FALLACY OF DIVISION: The logical fallacy of arguing that what is true for the whole is also true for the parts. In the study of economics, this takes the form of assuming that what works for the aggregate, or macroeconomy, also works for parts of the economy, such as households or businesses. The contrasting fallacy that you should check out is the fallacy of composition.

     See also | fallacy | macroeconomics | microeconomics | business | household | fallacy of composition | fallacy of false authority | fallacy of false cause | fallacy of mass appeal | fallacy of personal attack | normative economics | positive economics |


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ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION

Information is not equally available to everyone. Asymmetric information results because efficient information search inevitably stops short of compete information. Some people obtain more benefits from information than others, are willing to incur higher search costs, and thus end up knowing more. Or they incur lower information search costs and have easier access to the information. In a market, sellers tend to have more information about the good than buyers. Asymmetric information gives rise to adverse selection, moral hazard, and the principal-agent problem. These problems can be lessened through signalling and screening.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store seeking to buy either a rechargeable battery for your computer or shoe laces for your snow boots. Be on the lookout for deranged pelicans.
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Paper money used by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts prior to the U.S. Revolutionary War, which was issued against the dictates of Britain, was designed by patriot and silversmith, Paul Revere.
"Executives who get there and stay suggest solutions when they present the problems. "

-- Malcolm Forbes, business executive

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Association of International Bond Dealers (now called International Securities Market Association)
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