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July 22, 2018 

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TAX INCIDENCE: The ultimate payment of a tax. Many taxes are initially paid by one person, but passed along through production and consumption activities until it finally reaches someone else. An obvious example is the sales tax. While officially paid by the retail store (they write the check to the government), it's tacked on to the prices paid by consumers. Consumers, thus, bear the lion's share of most sales taxes. The incidence of other taxes is not quite so obvious. Some taxes are paid by producers early in production such as severance taxes on oil extraction without the knowledge of consumers, who end up paying through higher prices. As a general rule taxes are passed through the system until they reach someone (usually consumers) who can pass it no further.

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HARD CURRENCY: Historically money that is in the form of precious metals, especially gold. In modern times, any national currency that is expected to retain its value (and even appreciate in value), and is readily acceptable for most international transactions. The U.S. dollar, German marc, and Swiss franc tend to be near the top of the list of hard currencies (also termed hard money).

     See also | money | currency | gold standard | Special Drawing Rights | appreciation | exchange rate | foreign exchange | International Monetary Fund | balance of payments |


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ABSTRACTION

Simplifying the complexities of the real world by ignoring (hopefully) unimportant details while doing economic analysis. Abstraction is an essential feature of the scientific method. Hypothesis verification, model construction, and comparative static analysis are not possible without abstraction.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers trying to buy either a set of luggage without wheels or a how-to book on wine tasting. Be on the lookout for cardboard boxes.
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In the early 1900s around 300 automobile companies operated in the United States.
"You can't build a reputation on what you are going to do."

-- Henry Ford, automaker

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